~ Fort Hill Cemetery ~
In 1853, the Fort Hill Cemetery Association published a handbook.
There are only a few copies of the book still in existence.
This web site page presents the handbook with the original spelling and grammar retained.
Although the book lists W. J. Moses as the publisher, the authors are not listed.
It is likely the book was written by one or more of the original members of the Board of Trustees.
The book topics are indexed.
Click on a topic and the site will scroll to that section.
Foot notes, when the appear in the text, are linked -- click on the foot note and the site will take you to the reference.
This document contains 27,480 words in 594 paragraphs.
Fort Hill Cemetery:
CONTAINING INFORMATION RESPECTING THE ANCIENT
MOUND AND FORTIFICATION, AND THE INDIAN
MONUMENT WITHIN THE ENCLOSURE.
BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
PUBLISHED BY THE ASSOCIATION.
PRINTED BY W. J. MOSES.
Suggestions to Visitors
Visitors are reminded that the precincts of the City of Auburn, now waving with yellow corn, smiling with thrifty villages, and teeming with pale inhabitants, are consecrated with the name of the native proprietors. The Cayugas are now gone; yet a century ago they were here with their bows and arrows, chasing the fleet deer, angling in our lakes and rivers, offering sacrifices to the Great Spirit, and deliberating in the solemn councils of their chiefs. They are gone; yet a century ago their humble cabins were the only buildings reared, and their festive songs the only anthems heard within the borders of the county. They are gone; yet a century ago they were proprietors, in possession of this delightful grove, which the Great Spirit permitted them to occupy in all its primitive beauty and sublimity. They remained here with title undisputed, and possession undisturbed until advancing columns of civilization pushed them from their hunting grounds, and ultimately denied them right to the land of their birth, and the soil that entombed the bones of their fathers.
They were untaught in the sciences, but profoundly wise in the philosophy of nature. They were unacquainted with the arts and artifices of civilization. They were unused to guile, until men with paler faces taught them deceit. Although descendants of the Patriarchs, the bronze upon their faces was assigned as evidence of their incapacity to hold land by the long acknowledged right of possession. They were accused of their misfortunes, as if they were crimes against society, for which there were penalties. After perceiving the policy of their invaders, and being defrauded in their commerce with men pretending to Civilization and Christianity, they became jealous of their rights. If they indulged the spirit of revenge, it was for real or fancied injuries. If they resisted colonization, it was because they apprehended the consequences to them of that enterprize, which has driven them from river to river, and from forest to forest, until the noble race that boasted a Logan and an Alvaretta, have been nearly exterminated.
But their name is here to perpetuate the recollection of a people whose history, as far as it is known, is fraught with exceeding interest. And so long as there shall remain any vestiges of their occupancy of the country we inhabit, it will be difficult to repress emotions of poignant sorrow and regret at the wrongs which they have been doomed to suffer. It is therefore gratifying to know that an era of anxious concern for the "children of the forest," has succeeded a century full of efforts for their extermination, and that their works upon our hills, which once attracted little or no attention, are now beheld with solemn interest, and carefully preserved as precious relics of American antiquity.
The influence of the general change of public sentiment in this respect has been such upon the inhabitants of Auburn as to occasion the desire that the antiquated relics upon this eminence might be protected, and the grounds adjacent devoted to some sacred purpose. A Cemetery being needed, they were at length procured, and dedicated to the purposes of Christian burial.
The Cemetery Grounds.
"Ye say their cone-like cabins,
That clustered o'er the vale,
Have disappear'd, as wither'd leaves,
Before the Autumn's gale;
But their memory liveth in your hills,
Their baptism on your shore,
Your everlasting rivers speak
Their dialect of yore." -[Mrs. Sigourney
This Cemetery is located, according to the traditions of native proprietors, upon the site of one of their principal villages, and includes the remains of an ancient sacrificial mound and fortification, erected by a people wiser yet weaker than themselves, who abandoned them ere they had been fully completed. The village bore the name of Osco, *1 and was the probable birth place of Logan, who in early youth, and about the year 1730, emigrated with Shikellimus, his father, from the Cayuga country to Pennsylvania, and subsequently to the valley of the Ohio, where his family were slain by Col. Cresap and his party in 1774. As these dissolving structures have attracted much attention, it has been deemed appropriate, now that these grounds are dedicated to the purpose of Christian burial, to insert in the hand book for visitors, such extracts from accredited traditions and reliable books as are supposed to indicate their antiquity, their evacuation by the builders, their subsequent occupation by the Cayugas, and some of the reasons for the prevalent opinion that the Indian village which once crowned this eminence was the natal hamlet of the illustrious Logan.
Of the architects and the era of their construction of the mound and the fortification, very little more can be gathered from the surviving Cayugas, than that the very far back in the past of the parent stock of the Iroquois*2, were engaged in protracted but successful wars with the red men from the south-west, who had irrupted into that portion of their domain south of the Lakes, and constructed along the valley of the Ohio, and as far eastward as the ancient village of Osco, earthen altars for the worship of the Sun, mounds for the sepulture of their dead, and embankments for personal defence; and that whilst they were in the actual possession of these works, and before they had fully completed them, they were forced to acknowledge the rightful sovereignty of the Iroquois over these woodlands and rivers, and to evacuate all their fortified posts east of the Mississippi. In this, all the six nations substantially agree, without being able to furnish any definite or even approximate dates, either of the commencement or termination of the contest.
The traditions of the Mexican nations appear to be the most distinct, and therefore the most intelligible authority we have concerning as well the builders of these structures as the time when they were probably raised into being. These uniformly ascribe the erection of the works to a people denominated "Alleghans," who originally hunted south and west of the Mississippi river, and assert that some time during the eleventh century, and in consequence of the revolutionary movements which preceded overthrow of the Toltec and the establishment of the Aztec Empire in Mexico, they removed northward and eastward into the valley of the Ohio and country above, where they subsisted about three hundred years*3. We know, without recourse to tradition, that their name is inscribed upon the Alleghany range, and upon the waters of an important river in the United States. We are impressed therefore with the coincidence of Mexican traditions with those of the Six Nations, and the concurrence of both with facts developed by Colden, Davies, Clinton, Locke, Macauley, Schoolcraft, Drake, Catlin, and Squires, respecting the mound builders, and the antiquity and purpose of their works.
Colden, in his history of the Indian nations, published in 1727, mentions a race of people, denominated "Alleghans," who inhabited the country about the Alleghany river and mountains. From the language employed by him in the body of his treatise, and the map appended thereto, it is fairly inferable that he supposed them in the occupancy of the forests of Western Pennsylvania. In this he was doubtless in error, although entirely correct in asserting that a people bearing that name had been at some time in possession of that part of the country.*4
Davies, in his notes concerning American Indians, refers to a people occupying the foreground in aboriginal history, who extended over the entire Mississippi valley, and the country below, to the borders of Mexican America, and held a higher reputation for knowledge of the arts and sciences than their successors. He asserts on the authority of Father Raymond, that they styled themselves "Allegwi;" that they exercised sovereignty over a vast area of territory; that they had orders of Priesthood among them, and were worshippers of the Sun. This author evidently supposed them to be extinct.*5
Clinton, in his Memoirs of American Antiquities, referred to the Alleghans in fact, although he did not venture to indicate their name. He mentions a people, whom well accredited tradition asserts to have been the predecessors of the Iroquois, in the occupancy of the Ohio valley, and a portion of the States of New York and Pennsylvania, and who were the artificers of the tumuli which abound in this region. He further remarked, on authority of Pyrlaus, a missionary at Fort Hunter, in 1742, that the original occupants abandoned the country east of the Mississippi, anterior to the confederation of the Six Nations, which is supposed to have been about seventy years before white men came into the country.*6
Locke averts to the superior civilization of the Mexican Indians and those who occupied the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio at some early period; and asserts on the authority of Colden, Davies and Clavigiero, that an offshoot of the Mexican Indian stock pushed upward and eastward in the "river country," in consequence of the convulsions which ultimately overbore the Empire of the Toltecs in Mexico. This confirms the Mexican tradition, above mentioned, and helps the reader to an important date, viz: the era of the fall of the Toltecan Kingdom. This event occurred in 1052, being 164 years prior to the founding of the City of Mexico.
Macauley, in his remarks upon the character of the Mexican Indians, and their probable advancement to the banks of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers, appears to favor the traditions mentioned by Clavigiero, in respect to the Alleghans, which, as the reader will recollect, were, that they originally hunted south and west of the Mississippi rover, and some time during the eleventh century removed north, where they reside three hundred years. This author derives much support of his theory respecting the Alleghans, from the location, general range and extent of the works ascribed to them, from the vale of Mexico to the Lakes. The following extract discloses his impressions of these mounds, and of the builders:
"Tumuli are to be seen at this day in every Province of the Mexican Empire, and westwardly and north-westwardly of that Empire to the Gulf of California, and eastward. On leaving the vale of Mexico they seem, however, to decrease in numbers and magnitude. Here, then, we may reasonably conclude that the nation had attained its acme in civilization and the arts. Here the densest and most numerous population was collected -- here the seat of the most opulence. In the ancient States of Egypt, of Babylon, of Persia, of Greece, of Carthage, of Rome, the most splendid temples, pyramids, amphitheatres, and other public edifices were erected in the Capitols, and other places containing the greatest population and wealth. The same occurs in modern Europe, and in our own country."
"In the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio, which appear to have been the original seats of the descendants of the Toltecans, Acolhuans, and Mexicans, tumulose structures and works of defence, at times approach those of Mexico in numbers, magnitude and grandeur of design. We allude to those at Kahokia, Paint Creek, Circleville, Licking, Big Grave Creek, and at Marietta. The mode of structure is the same, if we exclude the stone pyramids. In both regions we find square and round mounds or temples. In both, the defensive works are round, square, and irregular, and in some instances, made of stone."
"From the information we have been able to collect on this highly interesting subject, it appears that these mounds and fortifications extend from the vale of Mexico to Lake Ontario. They are of three kinds, viz: sacrificial, monumental, and defensible; and they are found to be circular, square, and irregular in form. They are generally on commanding ground, and near water. They increase in numbers all the way to the valley of the Mississippi."
"These fortifications enclosed villages, towns, and cities.*7 There may have been some exceptions. The tumuli were sometimes within and sometimes without the fortifications, and were constructed for temples and cemeteries *8. The practice of inhuming bodies in places of worship has prevailed in Europe. Even the Greeks and Romans, before their conversion to Christianity, had a custom of burying their dead, and of depositing their ashes in urns in their temples. The Pagans also had temples and pagodas. The temple at Babylon resembled those at Teotihuacan and Cholula. It was a high place on which sacrifices were offered, and the doctrines of a mysterious and bloody superstition practiced. The Mexicans sacrificed animals, and sometimes human beings on theirs. So did the Indians. And it is stated on good authority, that the mounds in Illinois resemble those of Teotihuacan in shape, structure and materials, and were erected for the same purpose." (Vol. 2, p. 140.)
Schoolcraft, in his report to the New York Legislature in 1846, remarks: that "all the republic is concerned in the antiquarian knowledge and true etymology and history of an ancient race, to whom tradition attaches valor and power, and who have consecrated their name in American geography upon the most important range of mountains between the valley of the Mississippi and the Atlantic. But the inquiry comes home to us with a local and redoubled interest, from the fact, that they occupied a large portion of the western area of the State, comprising the valley of the Alleghany river to its utmost source, and extending eastwardly an undefined distance. Even so late as 1727, Colden, in his history of the Five Nations, places them under the name of 'Alleghans,' on his map of this river. It is not certain that they did not anciently occupy the country as far east and south as the junction of Allen's creek with the Genesee. A series of old forts, anterior in age to the Iroquois power, extends along the shores of Lake Erie, up to the system of water communication which has its outlet into the Alleghany through the Conewongo. There are some striking points of identity between the character of these antique military works, and those of the Ohio valley, and this coincidence is still more complete in the remains of ancient art found in the old Indian cemeteries, barrows, and small mounds of western New York, extending even as far east as the ancient Osco, now Auburn."
"The subject is one worthy of full examination. Who this ancient race were, whence they came, and whither they went, are inquiries fraught with interest. We should not be led astray, or even thrown off the track of investigation by the name. All the tribes, ancient and modern, have multiform names. This one of the Alleghans, probably fell upon the ears of the first settlers, but it is far from certain that it was their own term, while it is quite certain that it was not of the vocabulary of the bold northern race, the Iroquois, who impinged upon them. It has the character of an Algonquin word. Their descendants, whoever their ancestors were, may yet exist, under their own proper name, in the far west. The Iroquois, who pushed their conquests down the Alleghany and Ohio rivers after them, did not found a claim to territory further south on the Ohio river, than the mouth of the Kentucky. They pushed their war parties to the Catawba and Cherokee territories across the Alleghanies, and as far west as the Illinois. They swept over the whole region included between lakes Ontario, Erie, and Huron, north. In the latter case, we know it was a war against the tribes of the Algonquin stock, including one branch of another, and that their own generic stock, namely, the Quatoghies or Hurons." (See. Sen. Doc., 1846, No. 24)
In a communication, addressed to Brantz Mayer, Secretary of the Maryland Historical Society, in 1845, Mr. S. remarked, that the word Alleghan, applied in French and English, to an ancient and long extinct people in North America, and likewise to the most prominent chain of mountains within the regions over which they are supposed to have borne sway.
"Our authorities," said Mr. S., "respecting the ancient Alleghans, are not confined to the very late period, i.e., 1819, *9 which is alone quoted, and exclusively relied on by the learned Secretary of the Maryland Historical Society. Nor do they leave us in doubt, that this ancient people, who occupy the foreground of our remote aboriginal history, were a valiant, noble and populous race, who were advanced in arts and the policy of government, and raised fortifications for their defense (N.Y. Hist. Col. Vol.2, p.89, 91.) While they held a high reputation as hunters, they cultivated maize extensively, which enabled them to live in large towns; (Davies' Hist. Car. Isds.) and erected those antique fortifications which are extended over the entire Mississippi valley, as high as latitude 43 deg., and the lake country, reaching from Lake St. Clair (Am. Phil. Trans.) to the south side of the Niagara ridge (the old shore of Lake Ontario) and the country of the Onondagas and Oneidas (Clinton's Dis., N.Y. Hist Soc., vol. 2) Towards the south, they extended as far as the borders of the Cherokees and Muscogees. *10 From the traditions of Father Raymond, they were worshippers of the Sun, had an order of priesthood, and exercised a sovereignty over a very wide area of country. (His. Carib. Isds. Paris, 1658. London ed. Of 1666, p. 204, et seq.")
"At what era the Alleghan Confederacy, thus shadowed forth, existed and fell in North America, we do not know. Our Indian nations have no certain chronology, and we must establish data by contemporaneous tradition of the Mexican nations, or by internal antiquarian evidence."
"The 'Old Fort' discovered by Dr. Locke in Highland Co., Ohio, in 1838, denoted a period of 600 years from its abandonment, *11 that is, 284 years before Christopher Columbus first sailed boldly into the Western ocean. The trees on Grave Creek mound denote the abandonment of the trenches and stone look-outs in that vicinity to have been in 1338. (Trans. Am. Ethnological Society, vol. 1, N. Y. 1845.) The ramparts at Marietta had a tree decayed in the heart, but the concentric outer circles, which could be counted, were 463. (Clinton's Dis.) The live oaks on the low mounds of Florida, where one of the Algonquin tribes, namely, the Shawnees, aver that they once lived and had been preceded by a people more advanced in the arts (Vide Arch. Am. Vol. 1,) denote their abandonment about 1145. But even these data do not, probably, reach back sufficiently far, to denote the true period."
"If we fix upon the twelfth century as the era of the fall of the Alleghan race, we shall not probably over-estimate the event. They had probably reached the Mississippi valley in a century or two before, having felt, in their original position, west and south of that stream, the great revolutionary movements which preceded the overthrow of the Toltec and the establishment of the Aztec Empire in Mexican America."
"There are but two words left in our geography, supposed to be of the ancient Alleghan language. These are, Alleghany, and Yioghiogany, the latter being the name of a stream which falls into the Monongahela, on its right bank, about twenty miles above Pittsburgh."
"Tradition, not of the highest character, gives us the words Talligeu, or Talligwee, as the name of this ancient nation, although it is nearly identical in sounds with the existing and true name of the Cherokees, which, according to the late Elias Boudinot, (a Cherokee,) is Tsallakee. Col. Gibson, a plain man, an Indian trader, and no philologist, who furnished Mr. Jefferson with Indian vocabularies of the dialects of his day, to be used in answer to the inquiries of Catherine the Great, (vide Trans. Royal Academy, Petersburgh,) expressed an opinion that this ancient people did not use a T before the epithet, but were called Allegewee. Tradition has, however, strictly speaking, preserved neither of these terms, although both appear to have strong affinities with them. The word Alleghany has come down to us, from the earliest times, as the name of the great right-hand fork of the Ohio, and also as the name, from the same remote period of antiquity of the chain of mountains of which the stream itself may be said to be the most remote northeasterly tributary. In this form it is evidently a local term, applied geographically, according to the general principles of the Indian languages, like hanna in the Susquehanna, and hannock in Rappahannock, which appear to denote, in each case, a river, or torrent of water. By removing this local inflection, we have Alleghan, as the proper term for the people, and I have felt sustained, by this inductive process, in regarding Alleghan as the original cognomen of the'MOUND BUILDERS' of North America."
Other authorities, concerning the Alleghans, might be cited, if further evidence were wanting to establish the former existence of such a people. But as ethnological writers of recent date, generally concur in the statements of Colden, Davies, Clinton, Macauley, and Schoolcraft, it is scarcely necessary to add their testimony. So well indeed has the fact been established, that the Alleghans were the predecessors, not only of the Iroquois, but of other modern Indian nations, that learned and patriotic men have recently suggested the propriety of applying their name to the country in which we live. *12
In respect to the character of the Alleghans, and of the extent of their civilization, we have the authority of Raymond, Colden and Davies, for believing that they possessed some knowledge of husbandry, and of civil polity; that they had orders of priesthood, and were worshippers of the Sun; that they fused some of the harder metals, and manufactured baskets and wampum cloths; that they raised fortifications for their defence, altars for sacrifice and worship and mounds for sepulture of their dead; and that in these respects they resembled the native inhabitants of Mexico. Like the Pagans of the Eastern Hemisphere, they were without any just ideas concerning the Deity, but were impressed with the reality of the existence of someGREAT, ETERNAL CAUSE of the earth and its inhabitants -- of some wonderful intelligence -- of some irresistible power to create, to preserve and to destroy -- some Supreme monarch, who directed the movement of the stars, and the ebbing and flowing of the tides, the changes of the seasons and the growth and decay of vegetation, and of men. -- They saw the effects, and personally felt the genial influence of the Orb of the Day, and discovering no other object in the heavens above nor in the earth beneath so beautiful, powerful, or sublime, they devoutly worshipped it as a God. To this effulgent Deity they heaped up tumuli of earth in convenient proximity to their cabins and generally near the centre of their fortifications, before which they adored, as the incense from their altars ascended toward heaven.
Such, it is believed, were the people whose name has been inscribed in imperishable characters upon the most important range of mountains between the Atlantic border and the Mississippi, and who constructed this mound and embankment for the inhabitants of Auburn to demolish or preserve. They were once here in the full tide of forest life and of power. They were regarded, however, as trespassers upon the hunting grounds of the Iroquois, by whom they were compelled to evacuate the fortress. They retreated towards the country from whence they came. They are now without nationality, and are completely merged with other races, or have disappeared forever from the theatre of life. They are supposed to be extinct.
Having proceeded thus far with the perusal of this sketch, the reader will naturally inquire more particularly respecting the actual condition of these works when they were first observed by white men. This inquiry deserves an answer in this connection. After the treaty of Albany, concluded on the 25th day of February. 1789, by which the Cayugas ceded their possessions to the State of New York, the Government directed the lands to be surveyed with others, comprising the so-called "military tract." Several years were occupied in making the survey and allotments requisite to proper alienation of the same in parcels. In the filed notes of these surveys, returned to the office of the Surveyor General, there was a reference made to an Indian fort on an eminence near the "Waskough river, in the Cayuga tract," in then the county of Onondaga.*13 The country about Auburn was soon after patented out to soldiers of the Revolution and settled. It is not known that any of the white settlers observed these works prior to 1800, with much attention. It was the recollection of the late Hon. Elijah Miller, in his lifetime, that he had heard it stated by those who settled here prior to himself, that some part of this fortification was six feet high at the commencement of the present century, and his impressions were that parts of it were nearly of that height when he first saw it himself, about the year 1810. But the entire hill was then covered with a heavy growth of forest trees, many of which surmounted the embankments, and others stood in the moats, partially obscuring both from the casual observer. It is very probable that the works were more prominent then, than they are at present.
In the year 1825, Macauley, the historian, visited the works and noted their condition in his History of the State. He found "the embankment in eight pieces, varying from three to one hundred paces, with intervals between each piece. This has the same number of pieces with intervals; the pieces in their lengths invariably corresponding with those of the rampart. The entire circumference is four hundred and thirty-six paces, equal to one thousand three hundred and eighty feet. The length of the enclosure is one hundred and thirty four paces, and the breadth one hundred and ten. Its form is as near that of a circle as the nature of the ground would admit. The bank is from two to two and a half feet high and from eight to ten broad, and is made of earth taken out of the ditch, the latter being from one foot to eighteen inches deep. The lands on the east and west sides fall at first moderately and then rapidly; on the south abruptly; and in the direction of the village gently."
"We examined the stump of a chestnut tree in the moat, which was three feet two inches in diameter, two feet and a half above the surface of the earth. A part of the trunk of the same tree was lying by the stump. As this tree had been cut down, we endeavored to ascertain its age, and for this purpose we counted the rings or concentric circles, and found them to amount to two hundred and thirty-five. The centre of the tree was decayed; this part we estimated at thirty more, making in all, two hundred and sixty-five rings or circles, and at least five years had elapsed since the tree was felled; and there were evident marks upon the stump and trunk that it was consumptive long before. This tree, then, was two hundred and seventy years old at least, when it fell, which carries us back to 1555."
"At the distance of three paces, we examined the remains of another chestnut stump, situated in the ditch. The tree must have exceeded three feet in diameter, and must have died standing and have remained in that posture many years before it fell. Chestnut is very durable timber, perhaps more so than pine. To aver, then, that seventy or eighty years had elapsed since the death of this tree, would not, in our opinion, be an aberration from the truth; and this, admitting the number of years to have passed, would carry the time back before the discovery of America by Columbus, allowing the tree to have been two hundred and seventy years old when it died. Besides there is no evidence that this or any other tree in the wood, grew immediately after the dereliction of these works. Several growths of timber, for any thing we know, may have gone before the present. That these works, and others of the kind, were constructed long before America was known to Europeans, can, we think, admit of no rational doubt."*14
In 1845 the works on this hill were examined by Schoolcraft, in pursuance of instructions of the Secretary of State. He was accompanied by S. A. Goodwin, Esq., a friend of himself, and by J. H. Bostwick, Esq., an Engineer, who provided him with a survey and diagram of the fort. In his communication to the Secretary, he mentions the ancient name of this hill, *15 as derived from an Onondaga chieftain, and describes the fortification as follows: "The eminence called Fort Hill, in the southwestern skirts of Auburn, has attracted notice from the earliest times. *16 Its height is such as to render it a very commanding spot, and crowned as it was with a pentagessimal work, earthen ramparts and palisades of entire efficacy against Indian missiles, it must have been an impregnable stronghold during the periods of their early intestine wars. * * * The site of this work is the highest land in the vicinity, and a visit to it affords one of the best and most varied views of the valley of Owasco, and the thriving and beautiful inland town of Auburn, with its public buildings, prison, and other noted public edifices. The elipsis enclosed by the embankments, with their intervening spaces, has a circumference of twelve hundred feet. [Here follows an explanation of the diagram accompanying the report, which is omitted.] Viewed as a military work, the numerous breaks and openings in the wall constitute its characteristic trait. They are of various and irregular widths, and it seems most difficult to decide why they are so numerous. If designed for egress or ingress, they are destitute of the principle of security, unless they were defended by other works of destructible materials which have wholly disappeared. The widest opening of one hundred and sixty-six feet, is towards the north. The next in point of width, is towards the south. But in order to give to these, or any of the other spaces, the character of entry or sally ports, and, indeed, to render the entire wall defensible, it must have had palisades."
"Immediately below the openings and a part of the embankment, there are a series of deep ravines, separated by acute ridges, which must have made this part of the work difficult of approach. In front of the north opening, the ground descends gradually about seventy feet to where there is a perfect acclivity. The hill has its natural extension towards the east for several hundred yards, in the course of which, a traverse depression in the surface separates the eastern terminus of the ridge from its crown at the site of the fort. It is not known that excavations have been made; so that there is no accessory light to be derived from this source."
"The entire work conforms to the genius and character of the red races who occupied the Ohio valley, and who appear to have waged battle for the possession of this valuable part of the country prior to the era of the discovery of America, and ere the Iroquois tribes had confederated and made themselves masters of the soil. That the art of defence by field works was cultivated by them, is denoted by traditions as well as by the present state of our antiquarian knowledge."*17
In the year 1850, this noted spot was visited by another eminent antiquarian, Mr. E. G. Squires, afterwards Minister to Central America. In his work on the Antiquities of New York and the West, subsequently published, he refers to the fortress of Osco in the manner following: "One of the best preserved, and most interesting works in the State, is that overlooking the flourishing town of Auburn. It is situated upon a commanding eminence, which rises abruptly from the level grounds upon which the town is built, to the height of perhaps one hundred feet. It is the most elevated spot in the vicinity, and commands a wide and very beautiful prospect. The ground occupied by the work subsides gently from the centre of the area; but exterior to the walls are steep acclivities, rendering approach, in nearly every direction, extremely difficult. These natural features are indicated in the plan [a diagram prepared by himself,] which obviates the necessity for a detailed description. Upon the South are several deep gulleys, separated by sharp ridges, rendering ascent at this point, in the face of determined defenders, entirely impracticable. It has been conjectured, by some, that the walls here have been washed away; but it is clear that there was a slight necessity for any defences at this point, and that none ever exited beyond what may still be traced."
"The number and relative proportions of the gateways, or openings, are correctly shown in the plan. That upon the north is one hundred and sixty feet wide; that upon the east sixty feet; and that upon the west thirty feet. These wide, unprotected spaces, would seem to conflict with the supposition, so well sustained by its remaining features, that the work had a defensive origin. It is not improbable, however, that palisades extended across these openings, as well as crowned the embankments; for, without such additions, as has already been observed, the best of these structures could have afforded but very slight protection."
"The embankments of this work are now between two and three feet in height, and the trenches of corresponding depth. The area of the work, and the ground around it, are covered with forest trees. These are several depressions, which probably were the caches of the ancient occupants."*18
"It is said that a number of relics have been recovered here from time to time, and, among others, the head of a banner staff of thin iron, fourteen inches long and ten broad. This is, of course, of French of English origin, and was probably lost or buried here by the Indians, into whose hands, by purchase, or capture, it had fallen. We may, perhaps, refer it back to the days of Champlain and Frontenac, when the armies of France swept the shores of the western Lakes, in the vain hope of laying the foundation of a Gallic Empire in America. This relic is now in the possession of J. H. Chedell, Esq., of Auburn."*19
Whilst these three several descriptions are explicit, and very satisfactory in respect to the fortification, they fail to enlighten the reader respecting the sacrificial mound within the enclosure. The elevation there, which was plainly visible before this portion of the grounds was graded for cemetery purposes, appears to have escaped their notice. Yet such a tumuli was a concomitant of all the fortified villages of the Alleghans. They always had their place of worship, and that place was as generally within the walls of their fortress, as the place for the burial of their dead was without. Hence, it may be assumed, with a certainty nearly absolute, that an earthen altar, for sacrifice and worship, once existed at or near the spot selected for the site of the monument to be erected to the memory of Logan.
These, then, are the precious relics of a race of people, who probably retired from this eminence during the thirteenth century; who were wiser yet weaker than the Iroquois, and unable to maintain their position here against the superior military force of those who claimed the country as theirs. The Alleghans receded to the valley of the Ohio, and thence to the country from whence they came, leaving their fortress, their altar, and the ashes of their dead behind them. What a volume of reflections is suggested to a contemplative mind, by an inspection of these mouldering ruins!
The remote origin and ante-Columbian history of the Iroquois, are, as yet, enshrouded with much obscurity. The feeble light of tradition, however, reveals some of the leading events which preceded their discovery by the whites. "It informs us," says the author of a valuable work respecting the Ho-de-no-saw-nee League, "that, prior to their occupation of New York, they resided in the vicinity of Montreal, upon the northern bank of the St. Lawrence, where they lived in subjection to the Adirondacks, a branch of the Algonquin race, then in possession of the whole country north of that river. At that time they were but one nation, and few in number. From the Adirondacks, they learned the art of husbandry, and whole associated with them, became inured to the hardships of the war path and the chase. After they had multiplied in numbers, and improved by experience, they made an attempt to secure the independent possession of the country they occupied, but, being overpowered, they were compelled to retire from it to escape extermination."
"The period of their migration from the north cannot now be ascertained. Tradition informs us that, having ascended the St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario, and coasted its eastern shore to the mouth of the Oswego river, they entered, through this channel, to the central parts of New York. Their first settlements, they believe, were located upon the Seneca river, where, for a time they dwelt together. At a subsequent period, they divided into bands, and spread abroad to found new villages. One of these, crossing over toward and below Utica, became the Mohawk nation. The village of Ga-ne-ga-ha-ga, situated upon the south side of the Mohawk river, in Herkimer county, is supposed to have been the oldest settlement of that nation. For some years, the Onondagas and Oneidas were one nation; but a part of them having become established at Ga-no-a-lo-hale, east of Oneida Lake, in time became independent; while the other, planting themselves in the Onondaga Valley, and on the hills adjacent, became also a separate nation. In like manner, the Cayugas and Senecas were many years united, and resided upon the Seneca river; but one band of them, having located themselves upon the east bank of the Cayuga Lake, grew up into a distinct nation; while the residue, penetrating into the interior of Western New York, finally settled at Nunda-wa-o, at the head of Canandaigua Lake, and there formed the nucleus of the Seneca Nation."*20 The Tuscaroras subsequently became a nation, and were located west of the Senecas. These composed the "Six Nations," so called, of the New York Indians.
Whilst occupying the northern portion of the State, and claiming the country southward and westward to Ohio, but at what period they have no chronology, the Alleghans are supposed to have been moving northward and eastward, and that some of their parties were advanced as far as the fortress of Osco; and that, at this point, they were repulsed by the advancing columns of the Iroquois, who needed the game and fish in this region for their subsistence. According the traditions of the Senecas, about "one hundred years," and according to those of the Cayugas, about "the length of one man's life," (three score and ten years) before the white men came, they entered into a confederation, or league, against all other tribes which were invading, or which might invade their territory. Whether the white men referred to were Columbus and his crew, or Americus Vespucius, or Verazzana, or later European voyagers hither, of the Colonists of New Netherland, it has not been satisfactorily ascertained. From other traditionary and known circumstances, and these considered together, it is deemed most probable that the advent of the white men here referred to, was the landing of Columbus and his party, in 1492. Be that, however, as it may, it is certain that, at some remote period, they confederated, *21 and joined in a movement to expel the Alleghans from their country, and that a protracted war thereupon ensued between them. In that war, (whenever it occurred) the Cayugas made conquest of Osco, and went into constructive possession of it under that right. As has been intimated, the traditions of the Iroquois respecting the time of this conquest are indefinite, and when considered by themselves, are very unsatisfactory. But, when considered with the traditions of the Mexican Indians, and with the statements concerning the probable ages of the trees upon this fortification described by Macauley, the inference that the conquest of this post occurred at some time during the fourteenth century, is almost irresistible. *22 After taking this post, it is supposed that the warriors of the Cayuga nation pursued their retreating enemy, leaving their women and children in the occupancy of the Alleghan cabins, upon this hill.
Suffice it for this sketch, however, that the Cayugas went into possession of Osco about the year 1310, and thenceforward, for more than four hundred years maintained a village within and around this fortress. *23 Overlooking, as it did, the surrounding country, it was a position highly eligible for observation, for comfort, for security, and for council meetings. And it need not now be said that the occupants were wise enough to improve such great local advantages. They made it the residence of their Senators, or Sachems; among whom, in the year 1730, was Shikellimus, the father of Logan.
The Cayugas were divided into ten tribes, and were entitled to a representation of ten Senators, or Sachems, in the Grand Council of the Iroquois, being one-fifth of the whole number of Sachems in the Confederacy. They were also entitled to as many military Chieftains as they had Sachems in the Grand Council, and to a greater number when there were urgent reasons for the increase. They were renowned among the nations for the wisdom of the Sachems, and the bravery and heroism of their Chieftains and Warriors. It is the concurrent testimony of nearly all Indian writers, however, that they were more inclined to peace with other Indian tribes, and with the early white settlers of the country, than their brethren in the Confederacy. Some of the eldest and wisest of their Sachems were known among the hunters as "peace men," from their general reluctance to engage in the early wars of the Iroquois, with the Hurons, and other north-western tribes, long anterior to the Colonial war of the English and the French.*24
It may also be said of the Cayugas, that, benighted as they were, they were a religious people. They were without the light afforded by revelation, and doubtless entertained many erroneous notions respecting the Deity. They had a general belief, nevertheless, in certain elementary truths of an enlightened Christian faith: viz, the existence of one Supreme Being, which they termed theGREAT SPIRIT; and in another invisible power, which they termed an EVIL SPIRIT. They also believed in the IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL, and had faint impressions of a union of body and soul at some period, and in some manner, after death. And they worshipped the Great Spirit. Hence it is true, in a general sense, that they were religious --- a fact that has been the occasion of surprise, not only, but of the admiration of those who have taken the trouble to examine the subject.
"The personal existence of an invisible but ever present Deity," says a reliable author, "was an intuitive belief with the Iroquois, which neither the lapse of centuries could efface, nor human inventions corrupt. If, by the diffusion of this great truth, they did not escape the spell of superstition which resulted from their imperfect knowledge of the Supreme Being, and their ignorance of natural phenomena, they were saved from the deepest of all barbarisms -- an idolatrous worship."
"They believed in the constant superintending care of the Great Spirit, and that he ruled and administered the affairs of the world, and the red race. As Moses taught that Jehovah was the God of Abraham, Issac, and Jacob, and of his chosen people, so the Iroquois regarded the Great Spirit as the God of the Indian alone. They looked up to him as the author of their being, the source of their temporal blessings, and the future disposer of the felicities of their heavenly home. To him they rendered constant thanks and homage for the changes in seasons, the fruits of the earth, the preservation of their lives, and for their social privileges and political prosperity; and to him they addressed their prayers for the continuance of his protecting care."
"Their knowledge of the attributes of the Great Spirit was necessarily limited and imperfect -- of his goodness and beneficence they had a full impression, and some notions also of his justice and perfection. But they could not fully conceive of the omnipotence of the Great Spirit, except through the instrumentality of a class of inferior spiritual existences by whom he was surrounded. His power was evidenced by the creation of man. He was also believed to be self-existent and immortal. The ennobling and exalted views of the Deity which are now held by enlightened and Christian nations, would not be expected among a people excluded from the light of revelation."
"In the simple truths of natural religion they were thoroughly indoctrinated, and many of these truths were held in great purity and simplicity. Such is the power of truth over the human mind, and the harmony of all truth, that the Indian, without the power of logic, reached some of the most important conclusions of philosophy, and drew down from heaven some of the highest truths of revelation." @ @ @
"Whilst the religious systems of the Iroquois taught the existence of the Great Spirit, it also recognized the existence of the evil one. According to the legend of their finite origin, they were brothers, born at the same birth and destined to an endless existence. To the Evil Spirit, in a limited degree, was ascribed creative power. As the Great Spirit created man and all useful animals and products of the earth, so the Evil Spirit created all the monsters, poisonous reptiles, and noxious plants. In a word, while the former made everything that was good and subservient, the latter formed everything that was bad and pernicious to man." @ @ @
"The immortality of the soul was another of the fixed beliefs of the Iroquois. This notion has prevailed generally among all the red races, under different forms and with different degrees of distinctness. 'The happy home beyond the setting sun,' had cheered the heart, and lighted the expiring eye of the Indian, before the ships of Columbus had borne the Cross to this western world. This sublime conclusion is another of those truths, written as it were by the Deity, in the mind of man, and one easily to be deciphered from the page of nature by unperverted reason. This truth has always been taught among the Iroquois as a fundamental article of faith."
"The religious system of the Iroquois, taught that it was a journey from earth to heaven of many days' duration. Originally it was supposed to be a year, and the period of mourning for the departed was fixed at that term. At its expiration it was customary for the relatives of the deceased to hold a feast; the soul of the departed having reached heaven and a state of felicity, there was no longer any cause for mourning. The spirit of grief was exchanged for that of rejoicing. In modern times, the mourning period has been reduced to ten days, and the journey of the spirit is now believed to be performed in three. The spirit of the deceased was supposed to hover around the body for a season, before it took its final departure; and not until after the expiration of a year, according to the ancient belief, and ten days according to the present, did it become permanently at rest in heaven. A beautiful custom prevailed in ancient times, of capturing a bird, and freeing it over the grave on the evening of the burial, to bear away the spirit to its heavenly rest."
"Heaven was believed to be the abode of the Great Spirit -- the final home of the faithful. They believed there was a road down from heaven to every man's door. On this invisible way, the soul ascended in its heavenly flight, until it reached its celestial habitation. As before observed, the spirit was supposed to linger for a time about the body, and perhaps to revisit it. In consequence of this belief, a superstitious custom prevailed, of leaving a slight opening in the grave, through which it might re-enter its former tenement. After taking its final departure, the soul was supposed to ascend higher and higher on its heavenly way, gradually moving to the westward, until it came out upon the plains of heaven."*25
Such, then, was the civil, military and religious character of the primitive Cayugas -- such the ancestors of the immortal Logan, during the period of their occupancy of the fortress of Osco.
We now come down to the closing scenes of the seventeenth century, when the rapacity of white men, however menacing it may have appeared in the distance, had not actually reached the Cayugas. They were then here in the felicity of their forest life, yet had extended their ranges for game southward, beyond the present borders of the State. At this epoch, it would seem, from tradition and the writings of Loskiel, Heckewelder, and Colden, that some of the Cayuga tribes found it expedient to remove their fires to Shamokin, Pennsylvania; that among these immigrants to that country were the Sachem Shikellimus and his two youthful sons, one of whom it was who afterward become so justly conspicuous in American history -- and that soon after reaching that place, the Sachem embraced the doctrines of Christianity, as they were expounded by the Moravian Missionaries at that station. Sustaining a high reputation for wisdom in council, and being the patriarchal and civil head of that portion of his people, he was a fit person for the conciliatory office to which he was afterwards appointed by the authorities of the Pennsylvania Colony. For many years, he was the agent to transact the business of the government with his people in that vicinity. Whilst discharging those duties, he permitted the English name of Logan to be conferred in baptism upon his second son. Shikellimus and his family were converts to the pacific doctrines of William Penn.
Osco Village was abandoned by the Cayugas in 1789. Small reservations of land, near Cayuga Lake, were held by a few of them for some years afterward; yet they were found to be of little use to their occupants, in the face of the invincible columns of emigration which were daily pushing their way into the country around them.
Such is a brief sketch of some of the facts and circumstances relating to the construction of the ancient mounds upon Fort Hill; such the incidents and reminiscences associated in the history of its aboriginal occupants.
"Alas for them, their day is o'er,
Their fires are out from shore to shore;
No more for them the wild deer bounds --
The plow is on their hunting grounds.
The pale man's axe rings tho' their woods,
The pale man's sail skims o'er their floods,
Their pleasant springs are dry;
Their children look, by power oppress'd,
Beyond the mountains of the West --
Their children go toDIE."
____"He left all of my tribe
Nor man nor child, nor thing of living birth;
No! not the dog that watched my household hearth,
Escap'd that night of blood upon our plains.
All perish'd! I alone am left on earth!
To whom nor relative nor blood remains;
No: not a kindred drop that runs in human veins."
It is believed that this world-renowned Indian chieftain and orator was born in the Osco village, in the province of New York, in the early part of the eighteenth century. His Indian name was Tah-gah-jute. He was the second son of Shikellimus, a distinguished Cayuga Scahem or Senator, and compeer of Ontonegea, whose daughter he subsequently married. He went, in early youth, with his father and a large party of his people, to reside near Shamokin, Pennsylvania, where he became impressed with the pacific doctrines inculcated in that quarter by William Penn, and where he received, in baptism, the English name of Logan, in grateful remembrance of James Logan, Esq., Secretary of the Province, whose kindness to the children of the forest was scarcely inferior to that of the illustrious Governor, whom he officially served.*26
Logan resided with, or near his father, at Shamokin, until the year 1749, when, at the request of the latter, as well as in conformity with the promptings of an early attachment to the orphan daughter of Ontonegea, named Alvaretta, he was married to her by Bishop Ziesberger, the pious missionary who administered the consolations of the Gospel to his dying parent. After the demise of Shikellimus, Logan became a Chieftain. It appears, however, that although he possessed the confidence of his people as a field marshal, he had no ambition for war. Aspirations for military glory in him had been subdued by the gentle influences of the doctrines of the cross. He was, therefore, a peace-maker, rather than disturber of the tranquility of his people.
These facts enable the reader to discern the source of that pacific policy which afterwards so signally characterized the southern band of the Cayuga nation, and why it probably was, that, during the subsequent colonial war with the French, "Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace."
"Few Indian names," says Thatcher, in his Indian Biography, "have been oftener repeated than that of Logan. And yet of scarcely any individual of his race is the history which has reached us less complete. He was a chief of the Six Nations -- a Cayuga -- but resided during most of his life in a western settlement, either at Sandusky or upon a branch of the Sciota -- there being at the former location, a few years before the Revolution, about three hundred warriors, and about sixty at the latter.
"Logan was the second son of Shikellimus, and this is the same person whom Heckewelder describes as 'a respectable chief of the Six Nations, who resided at Shamokin, Pennsylvania, as an agent to transact business between them and the Government of the State.' In 1747, at a time when the Moravian Missionaries were the object of much groundless hatred and accusation, Shikellimus invited some of them to settle at Shamokin, and they did so. When Count Zinzendorff and Conrad Weiser visited that place, several years before, they were very hospitably entertained by the Chief, who came out to meet them (says Loskiel,) with a large fine melon, for which the Count politely gave him his fur cap in exchange; and this commenced an intimate acquaintance. He was a shrewd and sober man, -- not addicted to drinking, like most of his countrymen, because 'he never wished to become a fool.' Indeed, he built his house on pillars for security against the drunken Indians, and used to ensconce himself within it on all occasions of riot and outrage. He died in 1749, attended in his last moments by the good Moravian Bishop, Zeisberger, in whose presence, says Loskiel, 'he fell happily asleep in the Lord.'
"Logan inherited the talents of his father, but not his prosperity. Nor was this altogether his own fault. He took no part, except that of peace making, in the French and English war of 1760, and was ever before, and afterwards, looked upon as emphatically the friend of the white man. But never was his kindness rewarded like his.
"In the spring of 1774, a robbery and murder occurred in some of the white settlements on the Ohio, which were charged to the Indians, though perhaps not justly, for it is well known that a large number of civilized adventurers were traversing the frontiers at this time, who sometimes disguised themselves as Indians, and who thought little more of killing one of that people than of shooting a buffalo. A party of these men, landjobbers and others, undertook to punish the outrage in this case, according to their custom, as Mr. Jefferson expresses it, in a summary way.
"Colonel Cresap, a man infamous for the many murders he had committed on those much injured people, collected a part, and proceeded down the Kenhawa in quest of vengeance. Unfortunately, a canoe of women and children, with one man only, was seen coming from the opposite shore, unarmed, and not at all suspecting an attack from the whites. Cresap and his party concealed themselves on the bank of the river, and the moment the canoe reached the shore, singled out their objects, and, at one fire, killed every person in it. This happened to be the family of Logan.*27
"It was not long after this that another massacre took place, under still more aggravated circumstances, not far from the present site of Wheeling, Virginia, --- a considerable party of the Indians being decoyed by the whites, and all murdered, with the exception of a little girl. Among these, too, was both a brother of Logan, and a sister, and the delicate situation of the latter increased a thousand fold both the barbarity of the crime and the rage of the survivors of the family.
"The vengeance of the Chieftain was indeed provoked beyond endurance; and he accordingly distinguished himself by his daring and bloody exploits in the war which now ensued, between Virginians on the one side, and a combination mainly of Shawnees, Mingoes and Delawares on the other. The former of these tribes were particularly exasperated by the unprovoked murder of one of their favorite chiefs, Silver Heels, who had in the kindest manner undertaken to escort several white traders across the woods from Ohio to Albany, a distance of nearly two hundred miles. *28
"The civilized party prevailed, as usual. A decisive battle was fought upon the 10th of October, of the year last named, on Point Pleasant, at the mouth of the Great Kenhewa, in West Virginia, between the Confederates, commanded by Logan, and one thousand Virginia riflemen, constituting the left wing of an army led by Governor Dunmore against the Indians of the North West. This engagement has by some annalists, -- who however have rarely given the particulars of it -- been called the most obstinate ever contested with the natives, and we therefore annex an official account of it which has fortunately been brought to light within a few years.
"'Monday morning, [the 10th,] about half an hour before sunrise, two of Capt. Russell's company discovered a large party of Indians about a mile from camp; one of which was shot down by the Indians. The other made his escape, and brought in his intelligence; two or three minutes after, two of Capt. Shelby's men came in and confirmed the account.
"' Col. Andrew Lewis, being informed thereof, immediately ordered out Col. Charles Lewis to take the command of one hundred and fifty men, of the Augusta troops; and with him went Capt. Dickinson, Capt. Harrison, Capt. Wilson, Capt. John Lewis, of Augusta, and Capt. Lockridge, which made the first division; Col. Fleming was ordered to take command of one hundred and fifty more, consisting of Botetrout, Bedford, and Fincastle troops --- viz: Capt. Bufort, of Bedford, Capt. Love, of Botetrout, and Capt. Shelby and Capt. Russell, of Fincastle, which made the second division. Col. Charles Lewis' division marched to the right some distance from the Ohio; Col. Fleming, with his division, up the bank of the Ohio, to the left. Col. Lewis' division had not marched quite half a mile from the camp, when, about sunrise, at attack was made on the front of his division, in a most vigorous manner, by the united tribes of the Indians, Shawnees, Delawares, Mingoes, Ioways, and of several other nations, in numbers not less than eight hundred, and by many thought to be a thousand. In this heavy attack, Col. Lewis received a wound which in a few hours occasioned his death, and several of his men fall on the spot; in fact, the Augusta division was forced to give way to the heavy fire of the enemy. In about a minute after the attack on Col. Lewis' division, the enemy engaged the front of Col. Fleming's division, on the Ohio; and in a short time the Colonel received two balls through his left arm and one through his breast, and after animating the officers and soldiers, in a spirited manner, to the pursuit of victory, retired to camp.
"'The loss of the brave Colonels from the field was sensibly felt by the officers in particular; but the Augusta troops, being soon after reinforced from camp by Col. Field, with his company, together with Capt. M'Dowel, Capt. Mathews and Capt. Stuart, from Augusta, and Capt. Arbuckle and Capt. M'Clenahan, from Botetrout, the enemy, no longer able to maintain their ground, was forced to give way till they were in a line with the troops of Col. Fleming left in action on the bank of the Ohio. In this precipitate retreat, Col. Field was killed. Capt. Shelby was then ordered to take command. During this time, it being now twelve o'clock, the action continued extremely hot. The close underwood, and many steep banks and logs, greatly favored their retreat, and the bravest of their men made the best use of them, whilst others were throwing their dead into the Ohio and carrying off their wounded.
"'After twelve o'clock, the action in a small degree abated; but continued, except at short intervals, sharp enough till after one o'clock. Their long retreat gave them a most advantageous spot of ground, from whence it appeared to the officers so difficult to dislodge them, that it was thought most advisable to stand as the line was then formed, which was about a mile and a quarter in length, and had till then sustained a constant and equal weight of the action, from wing to wing. It was till about half an hour of sunset they continued firing on us scattering shots, which we returned to their disadvantage; at length night coming on, they found a safe retreat. They had not the satisfaction of carrying off any of our men's scalps, save one or two stragglers, whom they killed before the engagement. Many of their dead they scalped rather than we should have them; but our troops scalped upwards of twenty of those who were first killed. It is beyond a doubt that their loss in number far exceeds ours, which is considerable.'*29
"The Virginians lost, in this action, two of their Colonels, four Captains, many subordinate officers, and about fifty privates killed, besides a much larger number wounded. The Governor himself was not engaged in the battle, bring at the head of the right wing of the same army, a force of fifteen hundred men, who were at this time on their expedition against the towns of some of the hostile tribes in the North West.
"It was at the treaty ensuing upon this battle that the following speech was delivered, -- sufficient to render the name of Logan famous for many a century. It came by the hand of a messenger, sent, (as Mr. Jefferson states,) that the sincerity of the negotiation might not be distrusted on account of the absence of so distinguished a warrior as himself.
"'I appeal to any white man to say, if he ever entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat; if he ever came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said. 'Logan is the friend of the white men.' I had even thought to have to lived with you, but for the injuries of one man. Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not sparing even my women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me for revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? -- Not one.'
"Of this powerful address, Mr. Jefferson says: 'I may challenge the whole orations of Demosthenes and Cicero, and of any more eminent orator, if Europe has furnished more eminent, to produce a single passage superior to the speech of Logan;' and an American statesmen and scholar, scarcely less illustrious than the author of this noble eulogium, has expressed his readiness to subscribe to it.*30 It is of course unnecessary for any humbler authority to enlarge upon its merits. Indeed, they require no exposition: they strike home to the soul.
"The melancholy history of Logan must be dismissed with no relief to its gloomy colors. He was himself a victim to the same ferocious cruelty which had already rendered him a desolate man.*31 Not long after the treaty, a party of whites murdered him, as he was returning from Detroit to his own country. It grieves us to add, that towards the close of his life, misery had made him intemperate. No security and no solace to Logan, was the orator's genius or the warrior's glory."*32
In view of the foregoing facts concerning nativity, paternity, education, conjugal relations, moral character, and celebrity of Logan, it has seemed proper that these grounds should exhibit some tribute of respect to his memory. The sacrificial mound of the Alleghans, and of his ancestors -- the earthen altar whence ascended their incense to the Great Spirit in the centre of the fortification, has been set apart as the site of an appropriate monument.
"Who is there to mourn for Logan?"
"She was a gentle creature,
Of raven eye and trees;
And dove-like were the tones that breath'd,
Her bosom's tenderness;
Save when some quick emotion
The warm blood strongly sent,
To revel in her olive cheek --
So richly eloquent." --[Mrs. Sigourney
ALVARETTA is said to have been the daughter of Ontonegea, and wife of the eloquent Logan. She is represented to have been remarkably beautiful. The legends of the surviving Cayugas say, that her eyes were piercing, her face expressive, her person comely, and her manners gentle; and that, on account of her beauty in childhood and English name was given her by an officer in King George's service, at Fort Orange, whither her father had taken her on some occasion of importance to his people.
Very little, however, beyond the painful story of her death, is positively known of her. That she was born in this vicinity, and went to Pennsylvania with the parties of her nation who removed thither about the middle of the eighteenth century, may be fairly inferred from all that is more confidently alleged respecting her marriage and tragical fate. But of this there is no tradition sufficiently unmixed with fable to be entirely veracious.
But, as she was the daughter of a distinguished Sachem -- was the chosen companion of the most renowned of the Cayuga chieftains, and was canonized by the women of her nation, it may not be improper to perpetuate her name with that of her distinguished husband. *33
"I lingered, by some soft enchantment bound,
And gazed enraptured on the lovely scene.
From the dark summit of an Indian mound
I saw the plain outspread in living green:
Its fringe of cliffs was in the distance seen,
And the dark line of forest sweeping round." --[Flint.
The historical interest which clusters about Fort Hill, is greatly enlivened by the picturesqueness of its scenery. Very few, indeed, are the groves which exhibit so many features of natural beauty and sublimity, and it is doubted whether there are any in the country so susceptible of perfect horticultural adornment. Look where you will, from any point eligible for observation, at any section, mount, lawn, or glen within the enclosure, or at the whole together, and the eye is filled with the same beautiful scenery which made the first impression. Look where you will, from the summit grounds, over the precincts around, and you are greeted with an extended field of fringed landscape, scarcely inferior to any in the world.
So enchanting has this scenery been, to persons capable of appreciating it, that Fort Hill has for many years been the chosen retreat of those who desired to hie away, for an hour, from the bustle and business of the town, either to commune with themselves or converse with a friend. It has been the summer resort of the fashionable and the gay, for an agreeable walk, and of the man of business, for relaxation and rest. To the sentimental, there has been about it a kind of inspiration, and to the volatile, an air of romance. The substantial charm, however, has consisted in its natural beauty and sublimity.
It need not be said that such scenery was not uncommunicative to its appreciating observers. To them, it whispered the fitness of these grounds to become the resting place of the dead. And the intimation was heeded.
"The haughtiest breast its wish might bound
Thro' life to dwell delighted here;
Nor could on earth a spot be found
To nature and to me so dear."
By an Act of the Legislature, passed April 27, 1847, any number of persons, not less than seven, who may desire to form an Associated for the purpose of procuring and holding lands to be used exclusively for a Cemetery, or place for the burial of the dead, may form themselves into a Corporation, and may purchase, hold and convey, not exceeding two hundred acres of land, for that purpose. They are required to have a board of Trustees to manage the concerns of the Corporation, of not less than six, nor more than twelve proprietors, who shall be divided into three classes, each class, after the expiration of the terms of the first and second classes, to hold their office for three years. The Board of Trustees shall annually appoint from their number, a President and a Vice President, and shall also appoint a Secretary and Treasurer; and the latter may be required to give security for the faithful performance of the duties of his office.
It is further provided that the lands and property of Cemetery Associations shall be exempt from all public taxes, rates, and assessments, and shall not be liable to be sold on execution, nor applied in payment of debts due from individual proprietors. And for the security and protection of Cemetery grounds, and the trees, shrubs, monuments, and structures therein, it is expressly enacted that,
"Any person who shall willfully destroy, mutilate, deface, injure, or remove any tomb, monument, grave stone, building, or other structure, placed in any Cemetery of any Association incorporated under this act; or any fence, railing, or other work for the protection or ornament thereof, or of any tomb, monument or grave stone, or other structures aforesaid; or of any plat or lot within such Cemetery; or shall willfully destroy, cut, break or injure any tree, shrub or plant within the limits of such Cemetery, shall be deemed guilt of a misdemeanor; and such offender shall also be liable in an action of trespass to be brought in all such cases in the name of such Association, to pay all such damages as shall have been occasioned by his unlawful act or acts. Such money, when recovered, shall be applied by the Trustees to the reparation or restoration of the property so destroyed or injured."*34
Certificate of Incorporation.
This Certifies that on the fifteenth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, the following named persons, all residents of the State of New York, met at the office of Thomas Y. How, Jr., in the city of Auburn, County of Cayuga, and the State of New York, and formed an Association for the purpose of procuring and holding lands, to be used exclusively for a Cemetery or place for the burial of the dead, under an Act of the Legislature of the State of New York, entitled "An Act authorizing the incorporation of Rural Cemetery Associations," passed April 27, 1847, viz: William C. Beardsley, Michael S. Myers, Hugo B. Rathbun, John L. Watrous, Josiah N. Starin, George Underwood, Thomas Y. How, Jr., and George W. Hatch.
Michael S. Myers was appointed Chairman, and Thomas Y. How, Jr., Secretary, by a vote of a majority of the persons present at the meeting.
The corporate name of the Association determined upon by a majority of the persons who met, was" "The Fort Hill Cemetery Association."
The number of Trustees fixed to manage the concerns of the Association was twelve.
The names of the Trustees chosen at the meeting, by ballot, were as follows: Enos. T. Throop Martin, Thomas Y. How, Jr., James C. Derby, William C. Beardsley, Zebina M. Mason, Michael S. Myers, John H. Chedell, Nelson Beardsley, Benjamin F. Hall, John W. Haight, Cyrus C. Dennis, and Issac S. Allen.
The Chairman and Secretary immediately after such election, divided the said Trustees by lot as follows: First class, one year, Enos. T. Throop Martin, James C. Derby, Nelson Beardsley, and Benjamin F. Hall. Second class, two years: Michael S. Myers, John H. Chedell, Issac S. Allen and Thomas Y. How, Jr. Third class, three years, Cyrus C. Dennis, William C. Beardsley, John W. Haight, and Zebina M. Mason.
The day fixed on for the annual election of Trustees, was the second Monday of May in each year thereafter.
In witness whereof, we have hereto set our hands, at Auburn, this 16th day of May, 1851.
M. S. Myers, Chairman
Thomas Y. How, Jr., Sec'y.
Deed and Covenant.
"This Indenture, made the twenty-fifth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, between George W. Hatch, and Mary Ann his wife, of the city of New York, and Thomas Y. How, Junior, and Sarah his wife, of the city of Auburn, of the first part, and Nelson Beardsley, John H. Chedell, Cyrus C. Dennis, Enos T. T. Marton, Benjamin F. Hall, Zebina M. Mason, James C. Derby, Issac S. Allen, Thomas Y. How, Jr., Michael S. Myers, William C. Beardsley, and John W. Haight, Trustees of the Fort Hill Cemetery Association, a corporation formed at Auburn, aforesaid, under an Act of the Legislature of the State of New York, authorizing the incorporation of Rural Cemeteries, passed April 27, 1847, of the second part, witnesseth, that the said parties of the first part, for and in consideration of the sum of one dollar, to them in hand paid by the said parties of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged; and in further consideration of the covenants and agreements hereinafter particularly mentioned and set forth on the part and behalf of the parties of the second part, and their successors in office, to be done and performed, have granted, bargained, and sold, remised, released, aliened, and confirmed, and by these presents do grant, bargain and sell, remise, released, alien and confirm to the said parties of the second part, and to their successors in office forever, all that certain tract of land -- [Here follows the description of the Cemetery grounds, which is omitted in this hand book] -- To have and to hold the said premises to the said party of the second part, and their successors in office forever, to their use, as a Cemetery or place for the burial of the dead, solely and exclusively, in the manner contemplated by the incorporation of the said Fort Hill Cemetery Association, under the Act of Legislature of the State of New York aforesaid.
"And the said George W. Hatch and Thomas Y. How, Jr., do for themselves and for their respective heirs, executors, and administrators, separately and severally, and not jointly, nor one for the other, but the said Hatch as to that part of the premises hereby intended to be conveyed, known as ten acres thereof, particularly described in a Deed from Nathaniel Garrow and wife to said Hatch, dated the 18th day of March, 1836, and recorded in the Clerk's office of Cayuga County, the second day of September, 1836, in Book 53 of Deeds, at page 232; and the said Thomas Y. How, Jr., as to the rest of the premises hereby intended to be conveyed, covenant and agree to and with the said parties of the second part, and their successors in office, that they, the said parties of the first part, are the true and lawful owners of the premises above described, in fee simple; that the same are free from all incumbrances; and that they have in themselves good right full power, and lawful authority to grant and convey the same as a free, clear and absolute estate in fee simple to the said parties of the second part, and their successors in office; and that the said premises, above described, in the quiet and peaceable possession of the parties of the second part and their successors in office, they, the said parties of the first part, will forever warrant and defend against all and every persons or person whomsoever lawfully claiming or to claim the same.
"And the said parties of the second part, as such Trustees as aforesaid, for themselves and their successors in office, do agree with the said parties of the first part, their heirs and assigns, that they will hold and keep the said premises hereby intended to be conveyed, as and for a Cemetery or place to be used exclusively for the burial of the dead; and that they will, as soon as in the judgment of the said Trustees the number of the members of the said corporation shall render it safe and proper, with regard to the ability of the said corporation so to do, proceed and to improve the said premises, by fencing and grading the ground, and laying out the same into lots and otherwise preparing it for use for the purpose contemplated. And it is further covenanted and agreed, by and between the parties hereto, that the grounds of the said Cemetery, not required for avenues, roads, paths, alleys and walks, and for other purposes of arrangement and use, and for burials, with the consent of the Trustees, by persons not being owners of lots therein, shall be laid out, the entire grounds at one time or in parcels, in the discretion of the Trustees, in lots of size not to exceed twenty feet square, none of which shall be sold by the said Trustees at a price less than at the rate of forty dollars for every twenty feet square, without the consent, in writing, of the said parties of the first part, their heirs or assigns. And it is further understood, covenanted, and agreed, by and between the parties hereto, that after the said Trustees shall have sold lots in the said Cemetery, the prices of which shall in the aggregate amount to the sum of five thousand dollars, the avails of the lots, to the number fourteen hundred next thereafter sold, shall be apportioned and divided between the parties hereto in the ratio following, to wit: seventy percent. thereof shall be paid to the said parties of the first part, and equal moiety to each, or to the legal representative or assigns of each, upon demand, as the same is collected by the said parties of the second part, or their successors in office, from time to time, whenever the sum received by said Trustees, or their successors, for the sale of the said fourteen hundred lots, or any part thereof, shall amount to two hundred dollars; which payment of seventy per cent. upon the amount for which the said fourteen hundred lots shall be sold, is the full and entire consideration to be paid to the said parties of the first part, for the land hereby intended to be conveyed.
"And it is further mutually covenanted and agreed, by and between the parties hereto, and it is hereby expressly declared, that this deed is not to be construed, or held to be in any way conditional, by or on account of any covenants herein contained, but that the same is intended to be a full, entire and complete conveyance of the premises herein described, to the said parties of the second part, and their successors in office forever.
"IN WITNESS whereof, the said parties of the first part have hereunto set their hands and seals, and the said parties of the second part have caused the signatures of their President and Treasurer, and their Corporate seal, to be hereunto affixed, the day and the year first above written.*35"
On the seventh day of July, A. D. 1852, the Cemetery Grounds were formally dedicated, the presence of a large concourse of people, to the purposes of Christian Burial. The exercises consisted of an introductory address, by M. S. Myers, Esq., President of the Association; the singing of an introductory ode, composed by Henry Oliphant, Esq., the reading of selected passages of Scripture by the Rev. W. R. G. Mellen; a prayer by the Rev. W. P. Pattison; the reading of an apostrophe to Fort Hill, (author unknown) by the Rev. W. R. G. Mellen; the singing of a Consecratory Ode, composed by the Rev. J. M. Austin; the Dedicatory Address, by the Rev. Dr. Laurens P. Hickok; the singing of a Hymn, composed by the Rev. Dr. Henry Mills; and the invocation of the Benediction by Rev. H. A. Nelson. They were reported as follows:
[BY M. S. MYERS, ESQ.]
We have met, friends and fellow citizens, for the purpose of taking a step towards the consummation of a project, which, for some time past, has been an object of much interest to all our citizens. For many years, the grounds upon which we are now standing have attracted the attention of the community, as being admirably adapted to become a place of internment for the Dead. About one year since, an Association was formed, under the law of this State authorizing the incorporation of Rural Cemeteries, and it has now progressed so far as to warrant the Dedication of the grounds. We have met for that purpose, and here, I may be allowed briefly to allude to the progress of taste as emblematic of, and as illustrating our affection and respect for, the departed.
Veneration for the resting places of the dead is an attribute of humanity. It is deeply implanted in the human heart, and shows forth in the rude structure of the savage, to protect the graves of his kindred from the beasts of the forest, as strongly as in the polished marble which civilization causes to be erected to the memory of the dead. And we should hold it not only a sacred duty, but as a high and precious privilege, that we are permitted thus to manifest our regard for them, and to cherish their memories by the fit and proper improvement and adornment of these beautiful grounds, now about to be made sacred by a solemn dedication of their exclusive use, as the last resting place on earth of ourselves, our friends and kindred.
Of the past scenes upon these mounds and valleys, we know but little. Their history is obscure, and the most that it relates is gathered from the shadowy and uncertain, and in its best condition, imperfect aboriginal tradition. But we are surrounded by marks and vestiges that speak plainer than words, and tell us that in remote ages a people dwelt here; and we may well believe that their mouldering dust is mixed with the soil beneath us; nor would it be a wild stretch of the imagination to fancy that their immortal spirits may be permitted to hover near us, and to witness the solemn ceremonies of this day.
Yonder circle, broken and sunken in places by resistless encroachments of time, may have been their fortification in life, or their place of sepulture in death. The savage war cry or the wild but solemn death wail, may have resounded here -- we know not which; -- all has passed away, and but dim traces are found to aid us in our researches or imaginings.
But this beautiful spot, whatever may have been its past uses, seems marked by nature as pre-eminently fitted for the solemn purposes to which it is to be given for the future. Its picturesque variety of surface, --its hills and valleys, with the old and majestic trees of the forest, overshadowing and sheltering all -- its well adapted soil -- all, all its features and surrounding point it out as a place where our slumbering dead in their peaceful repose, will bring to their surviving friends, in dwelling upon their memories, pleasing though sad remembrances.
[BY HENRY OLIPHANT, ESQ.]
God of the loft mountain,
God of the verdant plain,
Of nature's purest fountain,
And of the briny main;--
God of the mighty river,
God of the earth and skies;
God present and forever,--
To Thee, we raise our eyes.
And as we bow before thee,
Within this verdant grove;
And would in faith adore thee,
God of our Fathers' love:
O teach us to obey thee,
Till life's last chord is riven,
And guide, we humbly pray thee,
Our souls to thee in Heaven.
And as within these bowers
We place our cherished dead,
And deck with fairest flowers
Each loved and valued bed, --
Where once, in warlike madness,
The Savage oft has trod,
May we, in holy gladness,
Sing praises to our God.
And when our days are ended,
And thou shalt call us hence,
May love and mercy blended
In Christ, be our defence;
To Him our hope be given,
That, ransomed by his blood,
Our home may thence be heaven,
With Jesus and with God.
God of all times and ages,
God of the bond and free;
God when disaster rages, --
Our stay on land and sea.
God of the great and holy,
God of the pure and just,
God of the meek and lowly,
IN THEE, WE PUT OUR TRUST!
READING OF THE SCRIPTURES.
[BY REV. W. R. G. MELLEN.]
Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. Is there not an appointed time to man on earth? are not his days also like the days of an hireling? As the cloud is consumed and vanisheth away, so he that goeth down to the grave shall come up no more. He shall return no more to his house, neither shall his place know him anymore.
As for man, his days are as grass; as a flower of the field, so he flourisheth. For the wind passeth over it and it is gone; and the place thereof shall know it no more. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.
And the king said unto Barzillai, come over with me and I will feed thee with me in Jerusalem. And Barzillai said unto the king, how long have I to live, that I should go up with the king unto Jerusalem. I am this day fourscore years old; and can I discern between good and evil? can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink? can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women? wherefore, then, should thy servant be yet a burden unto my lord the king? Thy servant will go a little way over Jordan with the king; and why should the king recompense it me with such a reward? Let thy servant, I pray thee, turn back again, that I may die in my own city, and be buried by the grave of my father and of my mother. And he charged them and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my people; bury me with my fathers, in the case that is in the field of Ephron, the Hittite. There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Issac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah.
Then said Martha unto Jesus, --Lord, if thou hadst been here my brother had not died; but I know that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee. Jesus said unto her, thy brother shall rise again. Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again, in the resurrection, at the last day. Jesus saith unto her, I am the resurrection and the life; he that believeth in me, though he were dead yet shall he live; and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Jesus answered and said unto them, ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God. For in the resurrection, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but as are the angels of God in heaven. But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have yet not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Issac, and the God of Jacob? God id not the God of the dead, but of the living. But some man will say, how are the dead raised up? and with what body do they come? Thou fool! that which thou sowest is not quickened except it die; and that which thou sowest , thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bare grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some other grain; but God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and to every seed his own body. All flesh is not of the same flesh, but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds. There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial; but, the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differeth from another star in glory. So also in the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption. It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. So when this corruption shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written: Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? The sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ.
And I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away, and there was no more sea. And I heard a great voice out of the heaven saying, Behold the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain, for the former things are passed away.
[BY REV. W. P. PATTISON.]
Almighty God, our Heavenly Father! thou hast taught us to acknowledge thee in all our ways, with the assurance that thou wilt direct our steps. We would engage in no enterprise, either individual or associated, without seeking the Divine blessing. We would therefore lift up our hearts to the throne of grace, invoking thy presence and favor at this time.
We thank thee that thou hast constituted us susceptible of pleasing emotions in the contemplation of the beautiful in the works of nature, genius, and art; --and also, that thou hast surrounded us with so many objects that delight the eye and please the taste. We bless thee that thou hast directed the attention of a number of our citizens to this delightful spot, so well adapted as a resting place for the dead. While we are thus reminded that we are a dying race, we would especially bless thee for the unspeakable gift of thy son, Jesus Christ, through whose wonderful death and powerful resurrection we have hope of immortality and eternal life.
We ask thy blessing upon, and acceptance of the consecration which we are now to make of this place, to the sacred and interesting purposes for which it has been procured. May thy providential care be over it -- may no rude hand be lifted to mar its beauty, or profane voice disturb its holy silence. When group after group of mourners shall gather here to bid a long farewell to departed loved ones -- to bury from their sight the precious infant -- youth in its loveliness--manhood in its prime--or hoary age,--may thy blessing ever rest upon them. As such tokens of mortality remind them that they too are pilgrims and sojourners here, may the sadness of the mourner's heart abound in hope of an everlasting home in heaven. As from time to time this place shall be re-visited, and the name, the virtues and the deeds of the sleepers recalled, may every association be hallowed--may all tend to chasten the spirits of the afflicted, and fit them for the skies. May all who have an interest in this resting place for the mortal body, secure an interest for the immortal soul in that rest which remains for the people of God.
Gracious God! grant that thou shalt be glorified in all the solemn services which may here be performed. Incline thine ear to every prayer. May every hymn here sung blend with the pure praises that surround thy throne on high. Sustain to the performance of every vow, called forth by the solemnities of the occasion, or the heart's deep bitterness. May every word of consolation here spoken be as balm to the wounded spirit. When generation after generation shall here have been gathered to their fathers, and the trump of the arch-angel shall sound to wake the dead, may all sleeping in this Cemetery rise to immortal life, and hear the voice of the Savior -- "Come ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world."
Command thy blessing upon the exercises of this hour. May the sentiments uttered be in harmony with the scenes around us -- acceptable to God, and make a good impression on the minds of all present; giving us juster views of the great end of our being, our relations to this world, and the world to come. And when the time of our departure shall arrive, may we each be enabled to say, with an inspired apostle, "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith; henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day; and not to me only, but unto all them, also, that love his appearing." And to thy great name, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, shall be ascribed all the praise, now and forever. Amen.
APOSTROPHE TO FORT HILL.
How solemn is this place--for here
Shall open founts of tears;
A thousand breasts have garner'd store,
To burst in coming years:
Here earthly cries, and earthly moans,
Ravine and dell shall fill;
Vain, falling tears, vain, pleading tones--
Death keeps the loved one, still.
Shall some lie here who can't be mourn'd,
Unloving and unloved?
Whose souls no loftiness adorn'd,
No aspiration moved?
Oh then, let all the living mourn,
That such should live and die--
Be humble for the glory shorn,
For souls came from on high.
Art hovering o'er thy once wild home,
Poor red man's spirit now,
When thy free nature loved to roam,
Like bird from bough to bough?
"Who mourns for Logan?" Oh not one--
Ah, brave and stalwart chief,
'Twas frenzy to thy soul, that none
O'er thee should bow in grief.
Sweet, quiet spot--thy spreading trees,
Thy angel-guarded dells,
Thy dappled sunlight--chanting breeze,
Like spirit-voice that swells--
Thy throats of song--thy insect's hum,
Make this a pillow blest,
To lay one's weary head upon,
For welcome, heavenly rest.
After the reading of these beautiful lines, by the Rev. W. G. R. Mellen, the following Consecratory Ode was sung by an excellent choir:
[BY REV. J. M. AUSTIN.]
Maker of Worlds! the Earth is Thine,
And Thine each bright and sparkling zone;
With wisdom skill, and power divine,
Thou mad'st and claimest all thine own.
These hills, these lawns, we crave of Thee,
For purposes thou wilt approve--
Would consecrate each mound, each tree,
To offices of sacred love.
The treasured ashes of the dead,
"Dust unto dust," we here resign,
In hope that by Thy spirit led,
The soul, repentant, my be thine.
Here where the Red Man bow'd of old,
Enwrapt in gloomy Pagan night,
Taught by the truth Thy words unfold,
Our mourn'd we'll leave with hopes more bright.
Forever hallow'd be this ground,
These peaceful vales, these solemn shades!
Here may we muse--here oft be found
When morning smiles and evening fades.
Guard Thou, O Lord, this holy place,
To Mem'ry's sacred uses given;
May hearts bereft, here find, through grace,
A house of God! a gate of Heaven!
The Cemetery Grounds were then formally dedicated, by the Rev. Dr. Laurens P. Hickok, President of the Auburn Theological Seminary.
[BY REV. DR. L. P. HICKOK.]
It may subserve the design of this solemn convocation, to consider how the same thing in nature is perpetually varying the modes of its being; how one substance remains, through many altered forms.
The identical being passes on, into successive different appearances. The solid congelation which binds the lake and the river; the pure snow crystal, which falls soft on the plain; the limpid stream, which murmurs along its pebbly bed; and the light vapor, which floats etherial across the sky; they are one and the same thing in nature, and yet, any portion of this element may, in time, appear in all these different forms. So the fresh plant, in all its stalk and branches, green leaves and fragrant flower, is still the same living thing which, but a few days since, was pent up at rest within its hard and dry kernel. These mighty oaks, again, which to-day spread their strong branches over us, may be traced through centuries, up to pliant saplings, tender shrubs, and germinating buds, just bursting from their acorns; and yet, one and the same living being has been growing on, through all the long process. The reptile, too, crawls along the earth with unsightly form and sluggish movement, winds himself in his funeral shroud an embalmed chrysalis, then bursts his crements, a winged angel in beauty and joy, flying in the open heavens from one starry flower to another at his pleasure; and yet, as reptile, chrysalis and flying psyche, the form only has changed, the living thing has been in all identical.
Thus universal through earth and sea and air, forms come and vanish, phenomena arise and pass away, but the substance continues as it was, yesterday and to-day the same. There is nothing which comes up out of a void, and then goes out in annihilation; all change is but an altered appearance of the permanent. Nature, in her essential being, is to-day precisely what she was in the first days of Adam, and from the song of the morning stars at creation till the oath of the angel shall make "time to be no longer," the same thing is only throwing off and putting on successive garments.
Man, in so far forth as he is of nature, is bound up in nature, and has the same law of the permanent running on through continual alterations. In his development he passes into successive forms, and one perpetually removes to make way for the following, he same man successively existing in them all. From infancy to age the shapes and features are constantly put on and off, while the rear wearer is identically one. He is born, matures, decays and dies; he moulders in the tomb, and his dust mingles with nature's other elements; but that identical essence which built up its own forms, and put on and off the successive particles which while living came and went in his own body, still endures; and so long as nature is, so long the essential man abides and holds on to his place and connections amid the essential compounds of the universe. The law of nature would determine thus much for every man's perpetual identity, through all the series of cause and effect which might flow on interminably. What was once the natural man would still be evermore somewhere in nature. But, while nature might thus teach us that the man endures, yet could not nature teach us that her changes would again bring up the man in consciousness, nor foretell the breaking of that bright morning when he shall awake again from his tomb of immortal youth and activity. If his lot were only with nature, then must man interminably endure and change on in nature. "As the waters fail from the sea, and the flood decayeth and drieth up, so man lieth down and riseth not; till the heavens shall be no more, they shall not awake nor be raised out of their sleep." (Job 14: 11,12.) Nature teaches the permanent identity of man through all changes, but nature teaches not that man shall rise again.
But from Revelation we are taught that which is far beyond nature. There is a spirit in man, and thus a spiritual world is revealed as his future dwelling place. He has that which is supernatural, and is thus destined to a supernatural experience beyond his natural life. "Till the heavens be no more he shall not awake nor be raised out of his sleep." But the time cometh when the heavens shall be no more. The elements shall melt, the heavens be rolled together as a scroll, the stars of heaven shall fall, the whole order of nature cease in the operation of her laws, and the order of the spiritual world shall come in. Then shall man arise again -- all men, the same who slept and waked in time's successive nights and morning, shall again wake to an eternal day. This mortal body which is in and of nature is yet to survive nature. When like a vision the universe departs without a wreck behind, the immortal soul in a spiritual body shall stand out in a spiritual world, and receive the retributions of a spiritual experience. The same body in another form, and the immortal soul in its own moral character, shall be reunited and dwell forever in its own spirit world. "Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; that they have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation." --(John 5: 28, 29.)
And now, it is this divinely revealed fact which gives to our convention here to-day all its significancy. Aside from the grand doctrine of the resurrection of the body, an appropriation of particular places for the burial of the dead can have no meaning. If that which we lay in the tomb is not again to wake in conscious activity, why a separate place consecrated to its peaceful slumber! Let the body and its members lie and moulder where they fall, like leaves which need no burial since they meet with no resurrection. If the spirit once gone up to God never again joins to body, then would our solemnities to-day be just as appropriate if directed towards a burial place of animals, or even as made sacred to the memory of these trees of the forest when they shall fall. But the unerring Word reveals that there is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body; there are bodies terrestrial and bodies celestial; the glory of one is not as the glory of the other, and yet the essence of both is the same. "It is sown a natural body. It is raised a spiritual body;" and this spiritual body in its celestial glory will still be consciously the same body, in its essential being, which once sickened and fainted and died on earth; even as the same body of the Savior left the sealed sepulchre, revealed itself to mortal sight and touch, and then went up in glory above the clouds of heaven.
In this great truth of the resurrection of the body we see the propriety of consecrating special places as cemeteries for the dead, and also an important meaning in the selection of such localities as leave the dust to undisturbed repose. There is good reason for making the place inviting to the living, that they may often visit the graves of the departed, and while they bend in sorrow and silence over those that sleep, they may reflect that both the body and soul still exist, and the dead shall again be made quick, conscious and immortal. It is a virtue thus carefully to select the ground; to cultivate and adorn it; for though the soul of the righteous man be in its heavenly glory, yet is its corporeal part still here, and it and the spirit shall one day again come together. The whole truth of God's revelation does not come out in our meditations upon the dead, when we think only upon the spirit which has gone; there is also the body which shall one day come forth spiritual and celestial. It shall no more be as the prison of the spirit; a clog and hindrance to its free activities; but itself as wings to every thought and emotion, and a facile organism for executing unwearied, every heavenly volition.
Lay, therefore, the sleeping body in its carefully prepared resting place--consecrate the ground in which the sepulchres of the dead are to be built, and where the fathers and the children of successive generations are to lie down together. Let selections be made for particular families, and kindred dust sleep side by side, that bereaved friends may often come away from the noisy world and think, and pray, and prepare for their own place among them. Let the chaste adornments of the tomb speak of affection, and faith, of joys to come, and hopes full of immortality. Let the monumental marble exhort to penitence, and reformation of life, and works of charity and pious devotion. Let every city and village have thus its hallowed enclosure with its garnished sepulchres, where the living generation may often come and commune with the generations which have gone before them.
For such a want in this city, have the Association of the Fort Hill Cemetery, here most wisely and liberally provided. Slow and solemn funeral processions have successively, for many years, been bearing the dead to their last resting place in the North Street Burying-Ground, until its crowded area now holds the garnered dust of generations past away. More ample grounds were needed to receive the population perpetually passing from the living to the dead, and those here selected combine as many advantages as the environs of our city can afford, and perhaps indeed all that could be wished. It is in immediate neighborhood to the living, and yet secluded and retired; of sufficient extent for coming centuries, and yet not exposed to encroachment and molestation from any city improvements; rugged and wild as taken in its native state, and yet already coming into shape under the hand of cultivation, and capable of the highest improvement and adornment. It may ultimately be made perfect of its kind. The old forest growth, the rising hills and mounds, the shaded dells and wild ravines, will readily be brought into such relations by broad avenues and winding lanes, as to present that combined whole which refined taste approves, and sorrowing bereavement seeks, and meditative affection and piety gladly appropriates.
The relics of an earlier race are also here, and strongly bend their influence to heighten solemn reflections. This extended circle of mound and embankment, with its surrounding trench, admonish of other experiences and other interests. We here read the anxieties and fears, the plans and cares and provident defences, perhaps the patriotic struggles and bloody conflict of an older and now extinct community. In our own buried dead, we shall meditate on individuals departed; in these ancient monuments we contemplate races, which have risen and acted, and now passed away without a history.
And here we come to the business which has induced to-day this solemn convocation. Our errand is to consecrate these scenes to pious uses and hallowed mementos. Religiously weGIVE UP ALL this field of forest and grove, hill and vale, ancient relic and modern embellishment, to the purposes of sepulture -- WE DEDICATE THE WHOLE TO THE DEAD. In the name of Him who is the Resurrection and the Life, the Judge of quick and dead, we set apart these grounds from all secular occupation to be the place of sepulchres, where the dust of generations may sleep in peace until the sound of the last trumpet. A few bodies have already been deposited within the enclosure. The first to whom a resting place was here given was a distinguished aged citizen, whose long life of activity and influence had been passed in the midst of us. Others, of all ages and classes, must rapidly succeed, until the congregation gathered here shall exceed the busy numbers of the living. May the Spirit of God soothe every sorrowing heart, and sanctify every tear that shall fall around the graves which are here to open; and may the solemn influences which shall steal into those minds who come here to meditate, purify and prepare their souls for heaven. To all who enter here and walk amid these scenes, we would say -- tread with silent and thoughtful steps, for the inhabitants of the eternal world are here.
And in conclusion, I remark -- that as the doctrine of the resurrection gives all its significancy to the services now performed, so the endowment of a rational soul gives to man this prerogative of a resurrection. Animal life may depart, and "the spirit of a beast tendeth downward." It is all of nature; thing and not person; there is no mortal being that should awake in a spiritual world. But man has in him the breath of God. He has a living soul which never dies. For the sake of this immortal soul, God watches man's sleeping dust and raises up his dead body. This immortal soul will make the resurrection of the body to conform to its own moral character. To die impure and unholy, will be to "awake in shame and everlasting contempt." To die the death of righteousness, will secure that in the morning of the resurrection the saints "shall come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away."
The grand use to be made of this service, and of the moral influences of this Cemetery in all future time, is so to purify our hearts that we may "die in the Lord," and come at last to a joyful resurrection.
The choir, after the conclusion of the Address, sang the following
[BY HENRY MILLS, D. D.]
Death -- 'tis of man "the common lot,"
Yet few reflect that they must die;
As if, escaping from the thought,
We could escape our destiny.
LORD, teach us, --'mid the slumb'ring dead,
Where Nature's beauties 'round us bloom, --
To think of death, without its dread;
With Christian hope, to cheer the tomb:
That when our bodies yield their breath,
And sleep beneath this sacred grove, --
Our sols, releas'd, may mount by faith
To greet the Paradise above.
And that our dust, with glad surprise,
When the Arch-Angel's voice is heard,
May in the Savior's image rise
To be forever with the Lord.
A Benediction by the Rev. H. A. Nelson concluded the highly interesting exercises, which occupied a little over an hour.
[BY W. C. BRYANT.]
To him who, in the love of Nature, holds
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks
A various language. For his gayer hours
She has a voice of gladness, and a smile
And eloquence of beauty; and she glides
Into his darker musings with a mild
And gentle sympathy, that seals away
Their sharpness, ere he is aware. When thoughts
Of the last bitter hour come like a blight
Over thy spirit, and sad images
Of the stern agony, and shroud, and pall,
And breathless darkness, and the narrow house,
Make thee to shudder, and grow sick at heart, --
Go forth unto the open sky, and list
To nature's teachings, while from all around --
Earth and her waters, and the depths of air --
Comes a still voice--Yet a few days, and thee
The all-beholding sun shall see no more
In all his course. Not yet in the cold ground,
Where thy pale form was laid, with many tears,
Nor in the embrace of ocean, shall exist
Thy image. Earth, that nourished thee, shall claim
Thy growth, to be resolved to earth again;
And, lost each human trace, surrendering up
Thine individual being, shalt thou go
To mix forever with the elements,
To be a brother to the insensible rock
And to the sluggish clod, which the rude swain
Turns with his share, and treads upon. The oak
Shall send his roots abroad, and pierce thy mould.
Yet not to thy eternal resting place
Shalt thou retire alone; nor couldst thou wish
Couch more magnificent. Thou shalt lie down
With patriarchs of the infant world -- with kings,
The powerful of the earth -- the wise, the good,
Fair forms, and hoary seers of ages past,
All in one mighty sepulchre. The hills,
Rock-ribbed and ancient as the sun; the vales,
Stretching in pensive quietness between;
The venerable woods; rivers that move
In majesty; and the complaining brooks,
That make the meadow green; and poured round all,
Old ocean's gray and melancholy waste, --
Are but solemn decorations all
Of the great tomb of man. The golden sun,
The planets, all the infinite host of heaven,
Are shining on the sad abodes of death,
Through the still lapse of ages. All that tread
The globe are but a handful to the tribes
That slumber in its bosom. Take the wings
Of morning, and the Barcan desert pierce;
Or lose thyself in the continuous woods
Where rolls the Oregon, and hears no sound,
Save his own dashings; yet--the dear are there;
And millions in those solitudes, since first
The flight of years began, have laid them down
In their last sleep -- the dead reign there alone.
So shalt thou rest; and what if thou shalt fall
Unnoticed by the living, and no friend
Take note of thy departure! All that breathe
Will share thy destiny. The gay will laugh
When thou are gone, the solemn brood of care
Plod on, and each one, as before, will chase
His favorite phanton; yet all these shall leave
Their mirth and their employments, and shall come,
And make their bed with thee. As the long train
Of ages glide away, the sons of men,
The youth in life's green spring, and he who goes
In the full strength of years, matron, and maid,
The bowed with age, the infant, in the smiles
And beauty of its innocent age cut off, --
Shall, one by one, be gathered to thy side,
By those, who in their turn, shall follow them.
So live, that when thy summons comes to join
The innumerable caravan, that moves
To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take
His chamber in the silent halls of death,
Thou go not, like the quarry-slave at night,
Scourged to his dungeon; but, sustained and soothed
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave,
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams.
The Board of Trustees of Fort Hill Cemetery Association, do, by virtue of the powers and authority in them vested, hereby ordain and establish the following rules and regulations for the government of the Association, and the management of the property and affairs thereof, viz:
I. All the business of the Association shall be managed by a Board of Twelve Trustees, one third of whom shall, after the expiration of the terms of the first and second classes already designated, be elected annually, by the proprietors of lots in the Cemetery, for the term of three years.
II. An annual meeting of the proprietors of lots in the Cemetery, for the election of Trustees, and the transaction of such other business as may be lawfully submitted to them, shall be held at the City Hall, in the City of Auburn, or at such other place as shall be designated by the Trustees, on the second Monday of May, of which it shall be the duty of the Secretary to give at least six days notice, in two or more newspapers, published in the City of Auburn.
III. From the Trustees of the Association, there shall be chosen, immediately after each annual election, a President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer, who shall hold there offices respectively for one year, and until successors shall assume the duties of said offices; and, appointed by the President, four standing committees, viz: a Committee on Finance; a Committee on Improvements; a Committee on Sales of Lots, and a Committee on the Superintendent's Salary and Accounts.
IV. It shall be the duty of the President to preside at the annual meetings of the Proprietors, and at all meetings of the Trustees; to call special meetings of either, or both, when thereunto requested by the Trustees; to appoint the standing Committees required by the preceding Ordinance; to sign deeds of burial lots; to recommend to the Board, by annual communications, or otherwise, such measures for improving, protecting, beautifying and enlarging the Cemetery Grounds as he shall deem expedient and proper, and in general to supervise the affairs of the Association. In his absence, the duties of his office shall be discharged by the Vice President, if he shall be present, and if not present, by a President pro tempore.
V. It shall be the duty of the Vice President to discharge the duties of President, whenever the latter shall be absent, or from any cause be unable to occupy the chair.
VI. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to record the proceedings of the Board of Trustees, to keep a register of the sales of lots in the Cemetery, and of Interments reported by the Superintendent, and to sign licenses for interments whenever any person shall have acquired the right to inter in the Cemetery, from the Board of Trustees or the standing Committee on Sales.
VII. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to receive, and safely keep the funds of the Association; to disburse the same only upon the order of the President, or the Chairman of the Committee of Finance; to report all funds in the Treasury, and the financial condition of the Association to the Board, whenever thereunto requested; and to execute a bond to the Association, with sureties to be approved by the President, in a penalty of at least one thousand dollars, for the faithful performance of his duties.
VIII. All monies which shall be derived from the sale of lots, from bequests, and from other sources, shall, except so far as they may be necessarily applied to the payment of the consideration money for the lands which constitute the Cemetery Grounds, be faithfully and economically expended upon the said grounds, or otherwise devoted to the purposes and objects of the Association; and shall in no event be paid to or be permitted to enure the individual benefit of any member of the Association.
IX. It shall be the duty of the Board of Trustees to appoint a Superintendent of the Cemetery, who shall hold his office during their pleasure, and receive, for his services, such compensation as the board shall prescribe.
X. It shall be the duty of the Superintendent to attend at the Cemetery, from time to time, and at such times as the board of Trustees shall direct, and particularly during funeral ceremonies and interments,; to enter in a Register, to be kept by him, the name, place of nativity, residence, age and occupation of every person whose remains shall be interred or entombed in the Cemetery, together with the date of his or her demise and burial, and the plat and lot, or plat and tomb in which such remains shall be deposited; to enter in another book, to be kept by him, an account of all monies received by him for burial charges or otherwise, and all disbursements made by him to laborers or others; to submit said Register and account book to the inspection of the Board of Trustees, or any member thereof, when thereunto requested; to exercise a general care and superintendence of the Cemetery Grounds, and all buildings, fences, statues, railings, monuments, vaults, avenues, walks, trees, and shrubbery therein; to enforce upon visitors due observance of these Ordinances concerning the Cemetery; to expel therefrom any person or persons whom he may detect in the act of violating these ordinances, and to report the case to the Board of Trustees; and, in general, to perform the duties of Executive officer of the Association, in carrying out its objects and purposes.
XI. All interments in lots shall be made under the direction of the Superintendent, and shall be restricted to the remains of members of families and relatives of lot proprietors, except special permission for the interment of the remains of other persons, upon a particular lot, be obtained from the Board of Trustees.
XII. Whenever application shall be made to the Superintendent by any person whom he does not know to be a proprietor of a lot, for the opening of a grave in the Cemetery, he shall, before complying with such request, require the applicant to produce to him a permit, signed by the Secretary; and in all cases of interments in lots, the Superintendent shall be authorized to make the following charges to, and it shall be his duty to collect the same from the lot proprietor for the use of the Association, and the monies so obtained shall be applied in payment of the services of the Superintendent, and laborers who shall be employed in the particular service, viz: For opening, closing and sodding graves, less than three feet in length, two dollars; for opening, closing and sodding graves, less than five feet in length, three dollars; for opening, closing and sodding graves, five feet in length and upwards, four dollars; for opening graves less than five feet in length, flooring and lining them with hard brick two feet from the bottom, and covering the same with common stone before closing, and then closing and sodding, six dollars; for opening graves less than five feet in length, flooring and lining them with brick o the surface of the lot, and covering with a tablet, to be furnished by the proprietor, eight dollars; for opening graves five feet in length and upwards, flooring and lining two feet from the bottom with hard brick, and covering with common stone, or marble, if furnished, closing and sodding, seven dollars; for opening graves five feet and upwards in length, flooring and lining to the surface of the lot with hard brick, and covering with common a marble tablet, if furnished, ten dollars; for adjusting a horizontal tablet upon walls already constructed, one dollar; for setting head and foot stones, one dollar; for furnishing the materials, and laying foundations for obelisks or monuments, with stone and hydraulic cement, four dollars per cubic yard; for setting an obelisk or monument, two dollars, and two shillings per hour for the time he shall be employed in improving lots, not belonging to the Association, together with the actual expenses of other labor bestowed and materials furnished therefor.
XII. The Superintendent shall, before he suffer disinterments to take place, require the production of a written permit to that effect, signed by the Secretary of the Association.
XIV. The proprietor of each lot may erect any proper stones or monuments therein, provided that no head or foot stones shall exceed two feet, six inches in height. Where marble slabs, less that three inches thick are used, to mark the places of burial, it is the desire of the Board of Trustees that they be laid horizontally, on firm walls, not exceeding eight inches above the surface of the lot where they shall be deposited.
XV. The proprietor of each lot may enclose the same with a fence, railing, or hedge, as may suit his taste, not exceeding three feet in height, and may plant such fence, or railing, upon a stone foundation, erected within the limits, and rising not exceeding six inches above the surface of the lot, provided that such fence of railing, (except the posts, which may be of red cedar or sound stone,) shall be of iron, and shall be light, neat and symmetrical, and the gate thereof shall swing into the lot.
XVI. All vaults, or tombs, shall be constructed of durable materials, and fitted up with catacombs, and, with the exception of the receiving vault of the Association, shall be sealed up with hard bricks and cement, immediately after the deposit of bodies therein, and the entrance protected with stone or metal doors.
XVII. If any monument, vault, tomb, effigy, railing, or any structure whatever, or any inscription be placed in or upon any lot, which shall be determined by four of the Trustees, for the time being, to be offensive or improper, the Trustees shall have the right, and it be their duty, to enter upon such lot and remove the said offensive or improper objects; provided, however, that if said structure or improvement shall have been made with the consent of the board for the time being, the same shall not thereafter be removed, except with the consent of the owner thereof.
XVIII. In the erection of monuments, vaults, tombs, railings or other structures, a place will be designated by the Superintendent for the deposit of stones, or other materials, which shall not remain longer on the ground than is actually necessary for their construction, and which shall be conveyed to, and the rubbish consequent thereon removed from the ground, upon hand barrows, or vehicles with broad wheels.
XIX. If any tree of shrub, situated in any lot, shall by means of its roots, branches or otherwise, become detrimental, dangerous or inconvenient to the adjacent lots, walks or avenues, the Trustees shall have the right, and it shall be their duty, to enter said lot and remove the said tree or shrub, or such part or parts thereof, as may be deemed detrimental, dangerous or inconvenient.
XX. It shall be the duty of the proprietor of each lot to place and keep in repair, permanent land-marks of the boundaries of their respective lots.
XXI. Proprietors of lots are requested to provide themselves with a copy of the Ordinances and Recommendations of the Board of Trustees, before erecting any structures, or planting any trees or shrubbery upon their lots, that they may be advised, not only of the peremptory rules of the Association, but of the suggestions of the board respecting the kind of structures which are the most durable and tasteful, and the species of shrubbery and flowers esteemed most appropriate to the "place of graves."
XXII. The proprietors of lots, and their families, shall be allowed access to the grounds at all times, observing the rules which are or may be adopted for the regulations of visitors.
XXIII. The entrance gate shall be opened to visitors exhibiting admission tickets to the person in charge thereof, between the hours of 9 o'clock A.M. and 6 o'clock P.M., but not at any other time, unless specially directed by the Board of Trustees. All persons desiring to visit the Cemetery, are required to procure admission tickets, to exhibit them at the entrance gate, and to pass through the said gate to and from the grounds; and all persons desiring access to the observatory on Mount Auburn, are required to obtain tickets therefor at the Keeper's Lodge, before ascending the stair case.
Visitors properly admitted to the grounds may have access to every part of the Cemetery, provided:
That they ride or drive in the carriage ways, and walk in the avenues and paths laid out for those purposes:
That they abstain from loud talking, singing, whistling, or other disturbing and unnecessary noises:
That the ride or drive no faster than upon a walk, if they have with them horses or carriages:
That they bring upon the grounds no firearms, fire crackers, or other explosive substances, refreshments other than water, and abstain from smoking during ceremonies of interments:
That they leave no horse or horses in the grounds, unattended, without fastening:
That they refrain from entering any lot which is occupied, without the special leave of the proprietor, and abstain from plucking any flowers, either wild or cultivated, or breaking or injuring any monument, railing, shade tree, shrub, or plant whatever:
That they refrain from writing upon, marking, or in any respect marring or defacing any tablet, monument, tree, head stone or structure, in or belonging to the Cemetery:
That, if they are under twelve years of age, they are attended by some person who will be responsible for their conduct:
And, that they observe, in all respects, such rules of decorum and propriety as shall be harmless to the Cemetery, inoffensive to other visitors, and befiting well bred visitors to the resting places of the dead.
XXIV. Any person who shall violate any of the forgoing rules, shall be expelled, and thereafter excluded from the Cemetery Grounds, and subjected to the severe penalties which the laws in such cases impose.
N. B. The Superintendent is invested with the authority to expel disorderly persons from the grounds.
Note.--The observatory, when erected, will be attended by the Superintendent of the grounds, who will furnish visitors with telescopic and other glasses, and will prescribe the time during which visitors may occupy the galleries. Artists employed by lot owners to sketch any portion of the Cemetery Grounds, or the landscape around, will be admitted to the observatory gratuitously, but will be restricted to such hours as will interfere the least with the convenience of the general visitors.
EXTRACTED FROM THE RULES AND REGULATIONS
OF THE GREEN-WOOD CEMETERY, PUBLISHED IN
DURABILITY OF IMPROVEMENTS.
The permanence of sepulchre architecture is an object so desirable, as to entitle it to special attention. The dilapidation and disfigurement of structures reared for the dead, has been too common to excite surprise, but can never be witnessed without pain. Knowing as we do the numerous causes of decay and displacement, which are ever in action, it should be made a primary consideration to guard against them. Respect for the dead -- respect for ourselves -- and a just regard for the taste and feelings of all whom either affection or curiosity may attract to the Cemetery, demand so much, at least, of those who shall make improvements in Green-Wood. This is a matter, obviously, in which all are interested -- for whatever the precaution and care used by some, if others through inattention suffer their grounds and monuments to become squalid and ruinous, painful contrasts will soon offend the eye, and the entire grounds will suffer a serious injury.
It is not indeed possible wholly to prevent the ravages of atmospheric influences, but proper care in the erection of structure will greatly counteract and long retard them, while those who shall see fit to take advantage of the provisions made by the charter for the preservation of monuments and inclosures, may insure their integrity and beauty for ages to come. With the view to promote this result, the ensuing suggestions are offered.
INCLOSURES OF LOTS.
Various modes may be adopted, according to varying circumstances. Those most in use are, hedges, posts and chains, posts and bars, and iron railings. These will be noticed in order.
These may be formed of various kinds of plants, but those best adapted to cemetery purposes are the box and arbor vitae, which are evergreen; the privet or prim, and the osage orange. The hawthorn is sometimes used, but being the native of a humid climate, its leaves often fall in August or September, making it less desirable than some other plants.
For small plots the box is perhaps the best, as it is of slow growth, and does not for a long time attain such height as to exclude the circulation of air so necessary to the growth and luxuriance of the grass and shrubbery within the lot. For large plots the arbor vitae is most suitable, as it presents at all seasons, if properly set out and trimmed, a screen of truly beautiful verdure. Hedges are not suitable for lots which have much descent, as the loose earth about the stems and roots is liable to be washed away by heavy rains.
POSTS AND CHAINS.
This mode of inclosure is objectionable. The chains are extremely liable to rust, and as they do not bind the posts firmly together, and are frequently used as seats and swings by children, they soon get out of place, and of course present an unsightly appearance.
POSTS AND BARS.
Inclosures of this kind are substantial, and if not so generally introduced as to produce monotony, appear well. Various kinds of stone are used for posts, comprising granite, marble, and sandstone. Care should be taken that whether for chains or bars, no posts should be used but such as are free from a stratified formation. Quincy granite, and also some kinds of sandstone, are exempt from this objection. If marble be used, the chains or bars which come more immediately in contact with the posts, should be so thoroughly painted as to prevent discoloration to the marble from the rusting of the iron.
In regard to these it may be remarked, that those which unite simplicity and good proportion are deemed to be in best taste, and most likely to afford permanent satisfaction. While firmness and stability should characterize each railing, unnecessary size and weight of iron should be avoided, especially in plots of ordinary size. Large plots require a somewhat heavier inclosure in order to appear well, particularly those in which massive monuments and tombs are erected.
In selecting patterns, those which expose the fewest joints and crevices to the action of weather should be preferred. Careful attention should be paid to the foundation on which they are erected. If coping be used, it should be placed on a stone wall, laid in cement, at least two and a half feet deep, so as to be secure from the action of the frost; or if stone blocks or posts are used, (which are preferable,) they should be of granite, at least eight inches square at both ends, and placed securely in the ground not less than two and a half feet.
Railings should be painted as soon as erected, before the rust commences forming, else the paint will be apt to come off in scales. The paint should consist of three coats, made quite thin, as a better body will thereby be formed than if made of the usual consistency. The first coat should be or red lead and litharge; the second and third of pure white lead and oil, colored as may be desired. If the second coat be of lead color, it will best prepare the railing for any other color which may be used. In painting, care should be taken to cover every part, and to fill every crevice. Thus painted, railings will require no care for several years. It may be well to observe, that common black paint or varnish being composed very frequently of lamp black and oil merely, will not long prevent the action of rust and ought not, therefore, to be relied upon. If black be preferred as a color, two previous coats of red and lead colors should be applied.
In regard to monuments, scarcely too much care can be bestowed to insure permanency. The foundations should be laid strongly in cement, and be not less than six feet deep -- the usual depth of graves. The stone of which the structure is made should be free from visible defects, and, if possible, of sufficient size to extend across the entire structure. Monuments composed of common masonry and faced with thin slabs of marble or stone will not last. It is a species of veneering that will soon exhibit the effects of the severe exposure to which it is subjected--nor will even the solid stone long endure, unless it be made to lie on what is termed its natural bed. Most kinds of stone and marble are composed of strata, or layers, not unlike the leaves of a book. If the stones are placed edgewise, or vertically, so as to expose the strata unfavorably to the action of the weather and the frost, the seams will in time separate, and the whole structure eventually fall into ruin and decay.
The preceding remarks will apply with even greater force to tombs built in part or wholly above ground. In such structures particular care is needed in the plan and construction which may be adopted. The stone of which they are built should be of sufficient length to extend frequently through the wall, not mere slabs set up on the edge, forming no bond of union between the outer and inner surface. Where angles occur, each alternate course should be composed of solid stones cut to the angle required, so as to prevent effectually a separation of the walls.
When placed in the hill side, the parts above the natural surface of the grounds should be of cut stone, the sides as well as the front, so as to avoid all artificial embankments and sodding. The natural form of the hill will thus be preserved, unsightly artificial mounds will be prevented, and the expense of frequently renewing and repairing the embankments will be avoided. The front foundation wall should not be less in depth than two and a half feet, nor should the side walls in any part be of less thickness than two feet. The roof should always be of stone tiles, or cut stone flagging, and the joints thoroughly protected from exposure to the weather. The interior of the tombs should be fitted up with shelves, (as required by the Rules,) so constructed as to admit each coffin being permanently and tightly sealed at the time of interment, with tables of stone or marble ready prepared for the inscription desired. Thus furnished, no unpleasant effluvia will be perceived, nor will any re-interment of the remains be necessary, as in other cases, after the coffins shall have decayed.
Vaults under ground should be built of stone walls, at least eighteen inches thick, with an arch of hard brick twelve inches thick, and all laid in the best of cement; lime should not be used for work under ground, nor is it well to use it in any way for monumental purposes.
VARIETY IN MONUMENTS.
As the permanency of monuments and their inclosures, is essential to the proper appearance of the grounds, so are symmetry and variety of form necessary to produce a permanently pleasing effect. The experience of other institutions in this respect appeals with force to the lot owners of Green-Wood.
The following passage, which occurs in a publication of the Laurel Hill Cemetery Corporation, at Philadelphia, is appropriate to the subject:
"It has been the frequent remark of visitors -- our own citizens as well as strangers -- that a monotony already begins to be apparent in the style and form of the improvements; obelisk succeeds obelisk, etc., with only sight variations, and if this is continued, we shall see, in time, too dull a uniformity to strike the mind with agreeable sentiments. This may be obviated by a little more inquiry before ordering a monument, and by not always taking the advice of the stone-mason, often himself willing to suggest the greatest bulk for the least money, and this allowing marble to usurp the place of good taste." * * * *
"A correct idea, expressed in marble, may be very beautiful, so long as it is unique; but by too frequent imitation, and in too close proximity with its original, it may destroy the charm of the first, and ultimately raise feelings in the beholder the reverse of those desired."
In the selection and placing of trees and large shrubs, good judgment and taste should prevail. A very beautiful effect may be produced by appropriately grouping trees, so arranging size, form, and color, that all will harmonize, or contrast favorably with the surrounding shrubbery. If attention be not paid to this feature, the most beautiful landscape will be marred; and common observation shows, that such results in the transplanting of trees are often witnessed.
Discrimination should also be exercised in selecting smaller shrubbery and flowers, that they may be suitable to the purpose for which the grounds are set apart. To arrange a burial plot as one would plant a flower-garden, is, to say the least, in very questionable taste. Care out then to be taken that too many flowers are not set out, and that the kinds and colors of such as are selected be appropriate. Nothing coarse or incongruous with the object and the place, should be chosen. Those which are delicate in size, form, and color, should be preferred. Such as are simple and unobtrusive, and particularly those which are symbolical of friendship, affection, and remembrance, seem most fitting to beautify the "Place of Graves."
The Lodge at the entrance to the Cemetery is the residence and office of the Superintendent of the grounds, to whom applications may be made for unsold lots, and for improvements to be made upon lots already sold. It is also the place where orders for the opening of graves, and memoranda of the names, places of residence, ages, and dates of demise of the persons to the interred, should be left by lot owners. It is the privilege and duty of all lot owners to communicate at all times with the Superintendent respecting any matter relating to the Cemetery, and particularly concerning any known violations of the ordinances of the Association.
It will be the pleasure of the Superintendent to furnish, on payment of the cost of publication of the same, all applicants with a copy of this hand-book, and with such information as it may be proper to communicate, respecting places of sepulture of particular persons whose remains repose in the Cemetery. It need not be intimated that his orders should in all cases be cheerfully complied with.
THE RECEIVING VAULT.
After passing the entrance gate, the object which visitors will observe, will be the receiving vault belonging to the Association. It is situated in the recess of the hill, and is conveniently accessible in the winter season, when the Cemetery grounds are covered with snow. Its use for temporary deposit of the remains of the dead, will be gratuitous to lot owners, and others intending to purchase lots in the Cemetery, who shall have obtained a permit to occupy it from the Board of Trustees. It will be opened and closed only by the Superintendent, or some person acting under his direction.
The receiving vault, however, must not be occupied longer than until the remains deposited therein, can be conveniently interred or entombed elsewhere in the Cemetery; nor must it be occupied at all by any person, after notice from the Superintendent to remove the remains which shall have been placed there. It is not to be presumed that any person will be disposed to prolong an occupancy of this depository longer than shall be sufficient to afford convenient opportunity to transfer.
THE COUNCIL GROUND.
This section is situated in the foreground of the Cemetery, and upon the left of the winding carriage way from the Entrance to Fort Alleghan, which is designated and known as Cayuga Avenue. It was termed the Council Ground by the topographer of the Cemetery, on account of the general impression that it was the spot where the Cayugas assembled for the deliberation. It has a fine northern prospect, and is the only section which presents a view of the Owasco Lake. It is without the line of the old fortification, but is nevertheless in convenient proximity thereto, to Mount Auburn, and from it the visitor may perceive all the monuments on the summit grounds of Fort Hill.
It has been suggested that as this section is upon the verge of the elevation, it should be surmounted with Evergreen forest trees to variegate the general appearance of the highlands, and seclude them more from the town. No where upon the grounds is there presented such natural advantages for the cultivation of ornamental shrubbery, or of trees bearing a heavy foliage. It is presumed that purchasers will appreciate the force of the first impressions upon visitors, and will arrange their improvements of these grounds in conformity with the ideas of the architect who laid them off.
It may not be improper to intimate that the Council Ground is likely to be regarded in future years, with greater interest, perhaps, than any other portion of Fort Hill. If the traditionary impressions of its former use are correct, it is hallowed by associations entirely different from those which attach to Fort Alleghan. It was the place of consultation, deliberation, and contemplation. It was the woodland bower -- the Senate chamber of the Cayuga nation. If it were their council ground, it was here that the ten Cayuga Sachems, each with a plumed Field Marshal at his back, were wont to confer together for three hundred years upon the interests, the duties and the destinies of their race. It was here that the sagacious Ontonegea informed his compeers of his presentiment of the ultimate consequences to his people, of the civilized settlements upon the Hudson. It was here that Garangula afterwards summoned the warriors of the nation to accompany him to the heights of Abraham. And it was here where Shikellimus pronounced his valedictory on the eve of his departure for Shamokin. It therefore deserves the choicest attention of its owners, and to be graced with such improvements as shall denote its probable use by the native proprietors.
Mount Auburn is the style of the elevated mount at the right of Cayuga Avenue, on the summit of Fort Hill. It is very likely to have been the Indian "look-out," and is appropriated to the purposes of an Observatory. It not only commands a delightful view of the city and its environs, but also of an extended area of beautiful landscape, deeply fringed with the highlands in the distance, which restrain within their appointed limits, the billows of Lake Ontario.
From a tower to be raised to the height of forty feet over this eminence, the waters of the Seneca and Owasco Lakes, and the villages of Geneva, Waterloo, Clarksville, and Throopsville, may be distinctly seen in a field of rural scenery as beauteous and lovely as were ever transferred to canvas. This is, moreover, the eligible spot to appreciate the sagacity and the wisdom of the architects of Fort Alleghan, and the founders of the ancient village of Osco. How readily could the native occupants of this mound have descried the signal fires of the hunters in the distance, to denote their location, or to admonish of approaching danger -- and what opportunities were enjoyed for signals of reply.
This section is located upon the summit plain of the Cemetery, and is defined by the remains of the pentagessimal fortification believed to have been constructed by the Alleghans, and distinguished by the name of its reputed builders. Hallowed as it is by associations of great historic interest, it may well be regarded as the classic ground of the Cemetery. The artificial arrangement of the burial places on this plat conforms to the general configuration of the earthen walls which surround them. Hence nearly all of them are broken segments of a circle, having a common centre at the altar at which the primeval occupants offered sacrifices to the Sun, and upon which, at a later day, the Cayugas offered oblations to the Great Spirit.
The sombre pile of native lime stone rising from the tumuli, is an humble tribute to the memory of an illustrious chieftain whose natal hamlet is believed to have crowned the eminence upon which it stands. It was designed not only to commemorate the greatness and goodness of the chieftain himself, but of the tragical fate of his family and relatives. It bears no modern epitaph, but is inscribed with a pathetic interrogatory, fraught with the deepest meaning, selected from his celebrated speech to Lord Dunmore, in order that the monument itself might appeal Logan's words to visitors.
A perusal of the preceding pages of this handbook will enable observers to appreciate the solemn inquiry. A believer in the fundamental truths of the Christian religion; a convert to the pacific doctrines of the founder of Pennsylvania; and habitually upright, charitable and kind, the notable chieftain was unprepared for the demonstrations of wanton violence in return. He had befriended white men to the extent of his opportunities and his means; he had opened the door of his cabin to all who were disposed to accept his hospitalities; he had given meat to the hungry, and raiment to the naked; he was the generous, abiding friend even of the pioneers whose axes were demolishing the forests which supplied his table with venison.
And yet in willful disregard, not only of his conjugal relations, but of all the ordinary rules of civilized or savage life, Col. Cresap and his marauding party, had, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered his family and all his relatives. Implicit faith on the part of his persecutors had been violated; his peaceful cabin had been desolated; and the tenderest ties of affection had been sundered at a blow, and that, too, by those whom he had theretofore looked upon as friends. And the base ingratitude of the sanguinary act, added poignancy to his sorrow. All this made him incurably sick at heart.
He was, however, an Indian. The blood of a noble ancestry flowed in his veins. The fires of an hitherto indomitable spirit yet animated his resolves. Fond memory of his beloved wife and children prompted him to action. There was no recourse but to the sad alternative of revenge. He sought and obtained it. He inflicted that chastisement upon the whites which they merited. And at length he compelled the Provincial Government of Lord Dunmore to sue for that peace which Col. Cresap and his party had so wantonly broken.
As was usual in such cases, a formal treaty of peace was proposed. Logan, of course, for the sake of his surviving people, was favorable to the measure; yet, in assenting to the compact, the memory of his wrongs could not be obliterated. His grief was too irrepressible to be stifled by other impulses. He assented to peace for others, yet felt that he would not, for his own sake, turn on his heel to save his life. He lived, but had buried his ambition for longer existence in the graves of his family and relatives. His blood ran in the veins of no living creature. He was the last of his race. And this, in the deep experience of his sorrows, he inquired: "Who is there to mourn for Logan?" and himself responded -- "Not one."
Such is the import of the inscription upon this unpretending monument -- such the mournful interrogatory addressed to every visitor. It need not be said that however unmourned the Chieftain may have been at his demise, there are few well bred people at the present day, whose bosoms are not filled with sorrowful emotions at the mention of his name. Millions now mourn for Logan, whilst they lament the wrongs which a rapacious civilization inflicted upon the native proprietors of our country.
Fort Alleghan, ere long, will be a thronged city of the dead.
THE THREE GLENS.
Beyond the table of the hill, there are three several glens, which are, with their surroundings, very picturesque and beautiful. The highest of these is situated south of Mount Vernon, east of Laurel Hill, and north of Mount Hope, and is called Glen Alpine. In this there may be seen an oval plat, laid off for a bower. The architect of the grounds attached the name of the glen to the beautiful section which inclines westward from Fort Alleghan, and terminates in the glen itself.
The second of these glens is the cove directly east of Mount Hope, where the carriage way from the south-west is intersected by that which descends to that point from Glen Alpine. The name of this glen is attached to the crowning plat north-east of it, the summit of which is occupied by Messrs. Fitch, Hewson and Derby.
The third glen is at the south-east of Glen Cove Section, and is called Glen Haven, and the name of this glen is attached to the section where the remains of the Honorable Elijah Miller repose.
The Glen sections are esteemed very choice allotments, on account of their secluded position and the remarkable beauty of the scenery immediately around them. Whilst they are well protected from the chilly winds, they are sufficiently exposed to the solar rays for the luxuriant and rapid growth of such ornamental shrubbery as may be planted there. The soil, moreover, is very free of impurities, and admirably adapted to the solemn uses to which it has been dedicated. It has been well remarked, that the three Glens are the poetry of the Cemetery grounds.
The elevated section which lies westward of Fort Alleghan, and directly north of the Alpine Glen, bears the name of Mount Vernon, from its supposed resemblance to the grounds about the tomb of Washington. It is eligibly situated for convenient approach with carriages, and well protected from the intrusion of too frequent visitors. It is prominent, without being as public as many other portions of the Cemetery. It is susceptible, moreover, of great improvements, by ornamental shrubbery.
On the western and southern margin of this section, there are several choice vault lots. Vault interments are not favored by the Trustees, yet, as there are many persons who prefer that method of sepulture, they are to be permitted within the restrictions imposed by the ordinances of the Board.
This section lies south of Mount Vernon, and directly west of Alpine Glen. It is a beautiful mound, and arrests the particular attention of admirers of mountain scenery. The name given to it was intended as an intimation to lot owners to ornament this eminence with laurel. It is conveniently accessible, and highly susceptible of adornment. It is generally regarded as one of the finest burial places in the Cemetery.
The summit of this eminence was selected by George W. Hatch, Esq., of the city of New York, as the site for a marble emblem of Hope, to be erected there by himself. Hence the propriety of the name of this section. It is situated south of Glen Alpine, and directly west of Glen Cove, and its summit overlooks nearly all the lowlands in the Cemetery. It is a retired, but conspicuous spot, and when surmounted with the contemplated statue, and properly improved, it will be inferior in beauty to none in the enclosure. This section contains several good vault lots.
GLEN ALPINE SECTION.
This section, as has been already intimated, comprises the terraced range on the slope between the southwestern palisade of Fort Alleghan and the Alpine Glen. Its adaptation to the purposes of sepulture is equal to that of any other potion of the Cemetery, whilst its proximity to the Fort on the table of the Hill and to the Valley below, is such as to afford the proprietors an excellent view of the choicest scenery from their several lots. It is, moreover, a convenient section for the occupancy of several lots together, by relatives and friends.
The lots at the head of the range belong to the families of the late J. S. Bartlett, and S. A. Goodwin.
*1 This is asserted on the authority of Taht-Kaht-ons, (in English Abraham Le Fort) an intelligent Onondaga. It is descriptive of the crossing of the river at Auburn on stepping stones. It was pronounced as though the first letter were double and had nearly the sound of W. In the treaty of cession of the Cayuga territory to the state of New York, concluded Feb 25, 1789, the name is written as "Was-Kough". When the village was obliterated, the whites applied its name to the Lake above and the river flowing through Auburn.
*2 "Iroquois" is the French style of the six confederated nations, viz: the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, and Tuscaroras. The Indians styled themselves "Mingoes".
*3 See M. Clavigiero's History of Mexico, vol 1, p. 204.
*4 Colden's History, French Ed., p. 64.
*5 Davies' Hist., ldsd., p. 168.
*6 Clinton's Discourse, N.Y. Hist. Soc.
*7 The tumuli for cemetery purposes belonging to this fortification were doubtless outside the embankment, and upon the eminence where the Female Seminary lately stood. That spot is known to have been an Indian burial ground.
*8 Modern writers have found that they also enclosed sacrificial mounds or earthen altars for worship of the Sun. Fort Alleghan evidently enclosed such an altar, as there was an elevated heap of earth near the place selected for the monument to the memory of Logan.
*9 Trans. Hist. and Lit. Com. Am. Phila. Soc. Vol. 1, Phila., 1819
*10 Seneca tradition, N. Y. Hist. Col., vol. 2.
*11 Cincinnati Gazette
*12 Discussions in the N. Y. and Maryland Historical Societies concerning a national name in 1850.
*13 Onondaga county was erected from Herkimer in 1794, and Cayuga was erected from Onondaga in 1799.
*14 See Macauley's History of New York, vol. 2, p. 110.
*15 "Osco," as before stated meaning "a crossing."
*16 Because it was the principal village of the Cayugas
*17 See Schoolcraft's Notes on the Iroquois at page 106.
*18 The Alleghans, after who it has been named.
*19 See Antiquities of the State of New York -- by E. G. Squires, A. M.: p. 48
*20 See work on the Iroquois, by L. H. Morgan, Esq : p. 5.
*21 The League, or Confederation of the Iroquois, was a very extraordinary compact. History affords nothing more interesting to the antiquarian. The reader is invited to examine the able treatise of L. H. Morgan, Esq., upon this subject.
*22 If the Alleghans left Mexico in the eleventh century, and remained north but three hundred years, they must have returned before the end of the fourteenth century. Now, as it appears that their northward movement was intercepted and repulsed at Osco, and as their retrogression down the valleys of the Ohio and the Mississippi must have occupied several years, it is deemed probable that the Alleghans left here as early as 1310.
*23 This tradition, unattended by chronology, although general among intelligent Iroquois, was specially communicated, many years ago, to the late Hon. Elijah Miller, by Ezekial Webster, who at an early day settled among the Onondagas, and married the daughter of one of their Chiefs. It is said that Webster, in his life time, with parties of the Onondagas, frequently visited these grounds, and manifested for them an unusual regard.
*24 See works of Loskiel and Heckewelder, and also Thatcher's Indian Biography.
*25 Book II. of Morgan's Treatise on the League of the Iroquois, page 149.
*26 James Logan was born at Lurgan, Ireland, Oct. 20th, 1674, and died at Stenton, near Philadelphia, Oct. 31st, 1751, in the 78th year of his age.
*28 Heckewelder's History
*29 Niles' Register, Vol. XII.
*30 Clinton's Historical Discourse: 1811
*31 Drake's Biography.
*32 Thatcher's Indian Biog., vol 2, p. 166.
*33 In the year 1842, a Cayuga Indian named Jehoiakim, from Cayuga Village, near the city of Hamilton, C. W., visited Auburn, where he was interrogated on this subject by Willet Lounsbury, Esq. He assured Mr. L. that his people had a tradition among them, to the effect that she was born at Osco, and after the death of her father was adopted into the family of Shikellimus, by whom she was taken to Pennsylvania. He further stated, that she was, according to tradition, remarkably beautiful. The story related to Mr. L. was subsequently written out and published in the Cayuga New Era, where it may be found at length.
*34 Session Laws of 1847, Chap. 133, Sec. 8.
*35 This Deed was duly executed and acknowledged by the grantors, and by the President and Treasurer of the Cemetery Association, and recorded in the office of the Clerk of the County of Cayuga, in Book No. 82 of deeds, at page 454.